The Human Space Travel Hoaxes 1959-2017

The International Fake/Space Station and US Shuttle hoaxes. All about so called re-entries - the latest one 18 June 2016. The Mars Science Laboratory hoax - all fake! The Hawai'I Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) program.

What is the purpose of all this nonsense?

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La Station spatiale n'existe pas


Warning!

Media and readers of my web pages about atomic bombs 1945, moon trips 1969, M/S Estonia ferry incident 1994 and 911 tower top down terrorist collapses 2001 are warned. You probably suffer from cognitive dissonance and cannot handle my information without getting mentally disturbed with serious consequences.

My proven facts are simple and correct and good news. A-bombs do not work. Humans cannot travel to the International Space Station (as explained below). M/S Estonia didn't lose her bow visor. Skyscrapers do not collapse from top down. All information to the contrary is pseudoscience, propaganda lies or fantasies promoted by media and taught at universities. And if you do not agree with the official lies, you will not be allowed at the university boat race* and other silly events, etc. Your position in society is at risk.

If you suffer from cognitive dissonance, you no doubt find my info disturbing and get upset, angry, anxious or worried. What to believe and write? Old lies or truth?

Media incl. newspaper chief editors are kindly requested to get psychological assistance to get rid of their cognitive dissonance. Why not cure yourself? And publish the result as a scoop.

*Safety at sea is my business

Summary:

It is not possible for humans to visit the International Fake/Space Station using a Shuttle or Soyuz or SpaceX Dragon capsule. Therefore only cosmo clowns have flown to the Moon or around Earth in space or visited the International Fake Station, IFS, orbiting Earth every 90 minutes. It is all a hoax. Or just a funny innocent show. Who cares about these idiots in space anyway?

The 1980's Shuttle was >2.3 times more fuel efficient than the best 2016 rockets sending goods to the International Fake/Space Station. But still it needed plenty fuel just to dock with the ISS!

Imagine if the US public finally learns it? That it has been fooled for more than 50 years by NAXA & Co ... and the European Space Agency ... and the media.

A re-entry is a spacecraft with humans or stardust coming from space and landing on Earth (or on Mars). It is physically impossible.


Welcome to the third part of my article about the Nationax Aeronautix and Xpace Administratiox, NAXA and its fake International Space Station, ISS, served in the past by the US space Shuttle and in the future by a certain Mr. Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX (already described in Part 1), various re-entries and other space propaganda, e.g. the HI-SEAS show with poor people being locked up as monkeys inside a habitat on a volcano on Hawaii.

Many people believe it is simple for humans to fly up into and around in space above us. They have not understood that it is not possible at all. They are badly informed due to a simple brainwash. Visit also my funny first part and the hilarious second part of my article or just read on: 

The US National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 rules:

ACCESS TO INFORMATION

Sec. 303. Information obtained or developed by the Administrator in the performance of his functions under the Act shall be made available for public inspection, except (A) information authorized or required by Federal statute to be withheld, and (B) information classified to protect the national security: Provided, That nothing in this Act shall authorize the withholding of information by the Administrator from the duly authorized committees of the Congress.

Human space travel is not possible and is only propaganda and this fact apparently affects US national security.

The silly fact has been withheld and you have to read about here. It is really funny. Imagine all these armed clowns employed by NAXA & Co trying to fool you that they have been in space. They are ... sick. I pay since September 2012 anyone 1.000.000:- that can describe a manned space trip but noone has managed my Challenge. Nobody cannot even describe how to go to and from and dock at the International Space Station including braking at arrival and speeding away at departure.

The third part below is in four subparts with chapters for easy references. You'll have a good laugh:

3.1 The International Space Station and the Shuttle. Rendez-vous in space is very complicated

3.2 How Capt. Mark Kelly (video is a fake) landed the last Shuttle on Earth

3.3 Maneuvering of the Shuttle for re-entry

3.4 Wing flaps and rudder movements decelerate the Shuttle

3.5 Repeat explanation of a Shuttle re-entry and landing

3.6 Christer Fuglesang

3.7 The US Space Shuttle

4.1 Latest re-entry news 2013

4.2 The X-37B unmanned spaceship landing October 2014

4.3 ESA Experimental Spaceplane IXV February 2015

5.1 NAXA is again fooling the world 5-6 August 2012 - Did friction or a parachute decelerate the Mars Science Laboratory spaceship in the very thin Mars atmosphere?

5.2 7 minutes of terror

5.3 Let Mars atmosphere slow down the spaceship!

5.4 The parachute ride

5.5 The Sky Crane

5.6 Another simple analysis of the alleged NAXA/JPL Mars Rover landing

5.7 Instrumentation

5.8 MSL Summary

5.9 Common sense overlooked ... as usual

5.10 Another NAXA hoax October 2014 - Orion and its re-entry

5.11 The latest NAXA hoax September 2016 - the HI-SEAS Program 2012-2016

6. Summary of three US and one Russian spaceship re-entries:

If you find anything wrong, please tell me at anders.bjorkman@wanadoo.fr and I will correct it.

 

3.1 The International Space Station and the Shuttle. Rendez-vous in space is very complicated

The International Space Station (ISS) is a fake spacecraft, i.e. a non-habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. It is just a fantasy creation by NAXA and Hollywood! Its first fake component was launched into orbit 20 November 1998, and the fake ISS is now October 2016 the largest, fake, artificial body in orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth at sunset. What you see is just an un-manned satellite! A big silver balloon! Many people do not believe in satellites at all, but the fake ISS is evidence that satellites can be sent - one way - into orbits around Earth.

There are plenty propaganda and disinformation about the ISS, e.g. Ms Kate Rubins left, the 60th woman, all fake of course, to fly in space on July 6, 2016.

Here you can see and listen to her explaining something about research done in space. Probably Kate exists ... but only down on Earth. She is paid US$ 10 000:-/month for life for her amateurish acting. She has never been in space! In the video she is strapped to appear floating in space in the ISS but her funny hair always drops down ... by gravity ... when she nods. In space it should drop or fly up! Thus Kate is acting ... on Earth.

The fake ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components, we are told by the owners. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and American Space Shuttles. They have a total mass of about 419.455 kg and a length 72.8 m, a width 108.5 m and a height about 20 m.

The ISS has cost US$ 150.000.000.000:- and is the biggest fraud of all times! It does not exist. It is just a magic trick. A silver balloon - satellite - in the sky! Plenty people are involved in the hoax. They participate as they are well paid to do ... nothing but keep the illusion alive. Media are part of the show. They publish anything about the ISS!


If you wonder how this big contraption was screwed together in space 1998-2008, you should visit the
List of International Space Station spacewalks. It seems that now and then two astronots spend 6-7 hours in space - EVAs - doing minor works - antennas, cables, ammonia tanks, bla, bla - of some kind. As the station orbits Earth in 90 minutes, 45 minutes is spent in darkness, all photos taken are in spite of this in daylight. Anyway, all photos are fake and taken using footage from the NASA Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory.

The asstronuts swim around in a pool screwing things together while being filmed. Later the background is added, i.e. the Earth down below, bla, bla. Nobody is ever in real space! It is all done underwater!

The ISS is like a ship (or submarine!!) at sea, safety of which is my business! Take the seven windows or portholes of the ISS installed in the white painted, useless cupola designed in USA around 1996! They were later built in Italy and installed in space 2010 (propaganda) and are made from glass that can survive rapid temperature changes without suffering the cracking that can result from thermal shocks. No EVAs were required to fit the cupola. The 2010 EVAs #137-151 do not mention it. The windows are exposed to the Sun for 45 minutes and heat up to 120C and then they are not heated by the Sun for 45 minutes but cool down to -120C in the cold, 45 minutes night outside. Obviously they are not designed to be opened. The windows also have external storm covers to protect them from micro-meteorites. They work like this! What a joke! The cupola has never left Earth! It is fitted in a swimming pool at Houston!

Spacecraft windows of fake cupola

Another fake module is the Columbus science laboratory. It was allegedly fitted to the ISS 2008. It cost US$ 2 billion paid for by EXA. The 2008 EVAs #101-119 do not mention it either.

The fake International Space Station, ISS, is owned by the Nationax Aeronautix and Xpace Administratiox, NAXA, USA, and Roxcoxmos, Russia, and, we are told, is in low Earth elliptical high speed orbit that varies from 320.000 m to 400.000 m altitude above the Earth's surface.

If it is true is another matter. The owners are not really famous for being truthful. They are a bunch of liars, if you have studied parts 1 and 2 of this report.

The speed needed to achieve a stable low Earth orbit is about 7 800 m/s, but reduces with (higher) altitude. NAXA says:

In November 2013, the ISS completed 15 years of continuous operation in low Earth orbit, marking a significant achievement in the history of human spaceflight. Two months later, the Administration announced its intent to extend Station operations until 2024. Originally designed and tested for a 15 year life span, the ISS may now operate for 26 years. The United States has invested almost $75 billion in the ISS including construction, operating costs, and transportation and NAXA will continue to spend between $3 and $4 billion per year to maintain and operate the Station going forward (this investment includes $43.7 billion for construction and program costs through 2013, plus $30.7 billion for 37 supporting Space Shuttle flights, the last of which took place in July 2011).

Imagine if the Space Shuttle flights were all fake by ... fake people?

I suggest that the ISS is just a big balloon in the sky with nobody aboard sent up by NAXA to fool you! The ISS can be seen from Earth as a bright spot, when it passes by at say 360.000 m altitude at 7.800 m/s speed just before/after sunset and if you happen to be right below it. Sometimes you can then see it for as long as 360 seconds above you, i.e. it travels 2.808.000 m from West to East at high altitude lit up by the setting Sun. Sometimes you see it for shorter times due to the fact that it is not lit up by the setting Sun being too low, when the ISS passes. All other, real satellites are much too small to be observed by eye.

A Mr Thierry Legaut says he has taken pictures of the very fast moving ISS + Shuttle from Earth, when they passed above him in the sky ... using a tracking system! I assume Thierry is part of the propaganda hoax.

The ISS orbits Earth in 90 minutes; it spends 43 minutes in Earth shadow and cold darkness, when it cools down to -120C, and then 47 minutes in the sunshine, when it heats up to +120C. The thermal structural deformations are enormous and the plates and stiffeners crack all the time, I assume. The sunshine reaches the ISS first at 0° angle and after 22,5 minutes it is 90° and then it becomes 0° again. The solar panels work only when the sun is shining but must be adjusted all the time, as the ISS is flying so fast up in space ... just like a simple silver balloon.

In order to charge the batteries aboard, you must adjust the solar panels all the time, when exposed to the sun. NAXA and Roxcoxmox present the ISS as some comfortable space craft always in the sun never suggesting any problems what so ever. And will not reply to any technical questions.

It is not easy to visit and dock with the ISS.

Thomas Pesquet was (not) the 10th Frenchman to be sent into space to the fake ISS 17 November 2016 to return May 2017. USSR (now Russia) and France have since 1966 an agreement to fake space trips and fake a-bombs explosions, thus the Pesquet space flight celebrates 50 years of fake French/Russian space/nuclear arms cooperation. If you wonder what Pesquet will do in space during 180 days it is simple: he will repair the ISS that is cracking up all the time and do scientific research (sic) for scientists down on Earth. Who these scientists are and what the scientific research is all about remains s e c r e t or u n k n o w n as nobody has ever heard about them! Pesquet has been training for years for his fake space trip in swimming pools at Moscow and Houston. Media will not report all is a joke! He publishes fake photos on Facebook.

Latest news 28 December 2016! Thomas Pesquet didn't become space sick, when he arrived, but it seems his vision is suffering! We are told that no gravity increases the flow of blood in the brain and that it damages the eyes. It is the price to pay, bla, bla. Thomas also pulishes 100's of fake space pictures on Facebook. What a stupid show!


A rocket ejects at a precise time the spacecraft/capsule with three parts from Baikonur into orbit.The start speed is 0 and end speed is 7.600 - 8.000 m/s. At the same time the ISS is orbiting over Baikonur at 7.600 - 8.000 m/s m/s speed and will pass it in 6 minutes. The spacecraft/capsule with its three parts then approaches the ISS from below at exactly the same speed and direction as the ISS and at the same location in orbit ... and the ISS grabs the spacecraft, so it can be connected to the ISS, bla, bla, bla. This takes place at 7.600 - 8.000 m/s m/s speed. If you arrive a minute too early or late, you are only 468 000 m away from the ISS and must use your rocket engine to catch it up or down in orbit. Rendez-vous in space is very complicated. You must have exactly the same speed and be at almost the same location in orbit to enable docking!

According EXA 18 June 2016 at http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Principia/Live_Tim_returns_to_Earth a re-entry from the space station is also simple, i.e. dropping down to Baikonur again. The Soyuz spacecraft/capsule with three parts undocks from the ISS at 7.600 - 8.000 m/s m/s speed, there is a thruster firing a large de-orbit burn for four minutes and 45 seconds and finally a separation:

"Shortly after the de-orbit burn, Soyuz separates into three parts. The orbital and service modules burn up on re-entry in the denser layers of Earth's atmosphere. The descent module turns to position its heat shield towards the direction of re-entry, so that it can handle the 1600C created by the friction with our atmosphere.

Re-entry starts at an altitude of about 120 km (120 000 m), when their cruising speed of 28 800 km/h (8 000 m/s) is reduced dramatically and the crew are pushed back into their seats with a force of 4-5 g. This is equivalent to four to five times their own body weight.

According to the EXA link the speed is 28 800 km/h or 8 000 m/s, when re-entry starts somewhere (position - lat/long - unknown) at 120 000 m altitude (top of atmosphere). First there is a de-orbit burn to reduce the speed to say 6.865 m/s.

Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky has established that the change in velocity, Delta-v, of a spacecraft in vacuum space (no influence of gravity of adjacent planet Earth) is a function of the mass ratio (spacecraft mass before, m0 and after, m1 firing the rocket engine, difference m0 - m1 being the fuel mass ejected as exhaust gas and the exhaust velocity ve of gas leaving the spaceship rocket nozzle.

Delta-v = ve ln (m0/m1)

Example 1 - you want to slow down a 6.000 kg (m0) three parts Soyuz module entering the atmosphere backwards at a almost horisontal speed of 8.000 m/s (no influence of gravity). You have only, say 2.000 kg of fuel aboard and it is ejected at a velocity ve of, say 2.800 m/s. m1 = 4.000 kg. Delta-v is only 1.135 m/s! After burning all fuel your speed will be 6.865 m/s - still flying backwards.

Now you enter the atmosphere at 6.865 m/s speed and and the deceleration is pretty constant 4-5 g say about 40 m/s².

Braking through atmosphere to about zero speed and parachute deployment thus takes exactly only 171 seconds and during that short time the length of the trajectory is 589 000 m (average speed an amazing 3 433 m/s). Imagine being subject to 4 g for 2 minutes and 51 seconds. Shouldn't you be squeezed flat? If you arrive 20 seconds too early or late at the start position up in the sky (120 000 m amtotude), you will end up 137.000 m away from the landing zone.

The Soyuz descent module outside manages to be protected by a heat shield that gets 1 600C temperature during the 200 seconds deceleration. The other modules burn up! At the same time the ISS continues orbiting over Baikonur.

However, it is not possible that a constant aerodynamic (!) force is applied for 171 seconds as the Soyuz descent module speed, direction and atmosphere density vary all the time, so you cannot establish and calculate the trajectory and the forces, speeds, directions and locations during the descent. So EXA says in this stupid video that the re-entry takes longer time and max g is at lower altitude - slower braking. But then the trajectory becomes much longer and you will land in the wrong place - maybe on India? It is not funny? But the whole thing is fantasy. Anything - with or without heat shield - is destroyed when encountering the atmosphere! Like all meteoroides. So this stupid ESA video is just a 1960's Hollywood fantasy! They forget you need fuel to de-orbit burn! LOL!

I consider the ISS and all its modules 100% fake - propaganda - because it is simply impossible for humans to visit it and return to Earth alive afterwards also described in Part 1 of this article. Thus it is an International Fake Station, IFS. If it were intended for humans, I would consider it an unsafe, not spaceworthy wreck to be stopped at once.

The famous Shuttle below allegedly visited the ISS/IFS 37 times (!!) with various building parts and modules (420 tons total!!) before being phased out 2011 and sent to the California Science Center museum as an exhibition piece of a heap of scrap. Every trip and module was 100% fake ... but most Americans - brain washed by media - believe they were true:

A Shuttle has at departure total mass - mostly fuel; 2 030 tons and an empty mass 78 tons and a pay load of 16 tons going to the ISS (if you can locate the info?)! It means that 1.936 tons of fuel was used to put 94 tons of Shuttle+cargo in ISS orbit or 1 ton fuel is used to get 48.5 kg to the ISS (most or 83% of it Shuttle of course). That is very GOOD!

French space launch vehicle Ariane 5 has start weight 770 tons (again most of it fuel of course) to send only 16 tons pay load to the ISS, 2015. Then 1 ton of fuel is used to put 20.8 kg to the ISS.

Isn't it strange that the 1980's Shuttle was 2.3 times more fuel efficient than a 2015 rocket? So how did a Shuttle reach and dock with the ISS with all the building parts?

The Shuttle ascended on an increasingly horizontal flight path under power from its main engines and external rockets and upon reaching 7.800 m/s necessary for low Earth orbit, the main engines were shut down, we are told. Some clowns believe it then took 6 hours to dock, i.e. the ISS orbits Earth four times at constant speed, while the Shuttle tries to catch up from behind with a little higher speed:

"Docking is a slow process. The Space Shuttle rendezvous timeline took 6 hours from start to finish. With 4½ hours to go, the Shuttle was 250,000 feet (76 km) behind the Space Station. With 3 hours to go, the Shuttle was about 50,000 feet (15 km) behind. Relative velocities became slower as the Shuttle closed in on the Station. The last 400 feet were incredibly slow, taking about 40 minutes."

During 90 minutes or 5 400 seconds (one orbit!) the Shuttle closed the gap by 61 000 m, i.e. was average 11 m/s faster than the ISS. Then during 140 minutes or 8 400 seconds (1.55 orbits!) the Shuttle closed the gap by 49 600 feet or about 15 000 m, i.e. was average 1.8 m/s faster than the ISS and then the last 400 feet or 120 meters took 2 400 seconds (0.45 orbits) or average relative higher speed 0.05 m/s. Of course to these speed you have to add the cruise speed of the ISS, i.e. say 7 800 m/s. You follow? How much fuel was used to slow down the 94 tons Shuttle from 7 811 m/s to 7 800 m/s is better forgotten. Because you need 8 070 887 000 J energy to do it! 8 GJ energy! If 1 kg fuel can produce 8 MJ brake force, it seems you need 1.000 kg or 1 ton of fuel just to slow down and dock! Imagine, if you arrived at 22 m/s faster speed when docking. How much fuel do you need to dock then? You are right! 2 tons! It is 12.5% of the total payload. Just to brake for docking!

Braking only 11 m/s at high speed around 7 800 m/s requires plenty fuel.

The Shuttle could then dock with the ISS because the ISS just happened to be where the Shuttle was. It always took place in bright sunshine, even if the ISS was 50% of the time in shade during the complete docking. The above Shuttle has done it 37 times, we are told! All fantasy of course. Just study the pilots!

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_entry

It is very simple for a spaceship to return to Earth - just dip into the atmosphere and push the brake! The brake? It is the pedal in the middle! Here the Shuttle returns after a space trip around the Moon or the Sun... ... all fantasy of course!

To return to Earth the Shuttle must evidently slow down a lot after undocking. Or speed up? How can it be done? The first Shuttle test flight occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. They were used on a total of 135 (!!) missions from 1981 to 2011.


Below is shown that any Shuttle will be vaporized trying to fly at Mach 20 to 10 in hypersonic flow between 80.000 and 50.000 m altitude with nose up 40°. There is no air where the Shuttle enters - only a few hard molecules ripping the Shuttle apart and putting it on fire. 

 

3.2 How Capt. Mark Kelly (video is a fake) landed the last Shuttle on Earth

The Shuttle return flights, in the old days, were something as follows as NAXA can provide very little how the Shuttle returns and lands on Earth: Another source is http://science.howstuffworks.com/space-shuttle.htm/printable.

To slow the heavy Shuttle (69 000 - 78 000 kg depending on fuel aboard) down from its extreme orbit tangential speed, 7 800 m/s, (same as the ISS) at 400 000 m altitude we are told the Shuttle flipped around and actually flow backwards (!) for a period of time - say 25 minutes, while braking.

Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky has established that the change in velocity, Delta-v, of a spacecraft in vacuum space (no influence of gravity of adjacent planet Earth) is a function of the mass ratio (spacecraft mass before, m0 and after, m1 firing the rocket engine, difference m0 - m1 being the fuel mass ejected as exhaust gas and the exhaust velocity ve of gas leaving the spaceship rocket nozzle.

Delta-v = ve ln (m0/m1)

Example 2 - you want to slow down a 78.000 kg (m0) Shuttle entering the atmosphere backwards at a almost horisontal speed of 7.800 m/s (no influence of gravity). You have only 8.000 kg of fuel aboard and it is ejected at a velocity ve of 2.800 m/s. m1 = 70.000 kg. Delta-v is only 303 m/s! After burning all fuel your speed will be 7.497 m/s - still flying backwards.

The two Orbital Maneuvering engines (OMs) thrust the Shuttle out of orbit and down toward Earth. The two OMs could provide 52.800 N brake force (we are told) and if applied to an average mass Shuttle 73 500 kg, the deceleration will be 52 800/73 500 = 0.71 m/s².

That is too little to stop the heavy Shuttle but we do not know the fuel consumption and time for the operation. But it cannot be more than five minutes. After that a Reaction Control System was used to "flip" the Shuttle forwards to a correct re-entry angle.

Compare with events #5 and 6 in Part 2. There you only reduce the speed of a 43 574 kg Apollo 11 spaceship from 2 400 m/s to 1 500 m/s during 357.5 seconds and you need 10 898 kg of fuel for it. It appears that the Shuttle rocket engines are (1) too weak to slow down the 78 000 kg Shuttle and (2) there is not fuel enough aboard the Shuttle to provide the thrust.

I estimate you need 200-300 tons of fuel to slow down the Shuttle just to deorbit and that is evidently not possible. It explains the confusing NAXA explanations of Shuttle re-entry in links above. But let's assume the Shuttle manages to "flip" forwards when approaching location B. What can the speed be? 8 200 m/s? And in what direction? 26°? Then you will hit ground pretty soon.

Due to loss of potential energy and ineffective brake rockets the Shuttle total speed may now be about 8 200 m/s at an altitude of 80.000 m (location B). Reason being things drop faster the longer they drop down due gravity.The total velocity of the Shuttle thus increases to about 8 200 m/s with an angle of attack (LOL) 40°, when it contacts the atmosphere. The potential energy in orbit at 400 000 m altitude adds to the kinetic energy of the Shuttle at 80 000 m altitude. The vertical speed is of the order 1 800 m/s and increasing and you would expect the very heavy Shuttle to crash in 60 seconds.

Source: http://sphotos-f.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/188586_10150116474323710_309913_n.jpg

Above (fake) photo is of US Air Force captain Mark Kelly floating in space of the ISS (or in an airplane against a green screen!) just prior to return to Earth in the last Shuttle. It is very simple to return to Earth from the ISS! Jump into the Shuttle, speed away from the ISS and then step on the brakes all the way down. But easier to trick film it at Hollywood. Then remember to kiss your wife Gaby Giffords on her head on arrival; the head that was hit by a bullet earlier. How to play guitar in the ISS swimmingpool = here!

Mark's twin brother Scott Kelly shall spend one year (!) in the fake ISS starting spring 2015. Imagine floating in space one long year - imagine what the NAXA science fiction writers can invent. Scott will fly up and down to space using a capsule = the standard joke

However, during re-entry at location B and landing, the Shuttle then was not powered by engines or gravity, NAXA announces.

Instead, it flow like a high-tech glider, relying first on its steering jets and then its aero surfaces, i.e. the small wings with flaps at back edges to control the airflow around it. Note that no Apollo 11 type heat shield is used. 

NAXA must have done model tests in a wind tunnel or full scale tests to establish wind forces acting on the high-tech Shuttle glider, as no wind tunnel exists that provides 8.200 m/s winds ... of different densities and very low pressures. But there is no air up at 130.000 or 80.000 m altitude. To suggest that you can glide at 130.000 m altitude to 80.000 m altitude with speed 8 200 m/s and then start to brake using air drag is crazy. It is pure pseudoscience.


Source

Earth's diameter at the Equator is 12 756.1 km and the ISS is orbiting only 350-400 km above Earth so the above figure is pure propaganda. You cannot overshoot when returning from the ISS as you are always too close to Earth from start. You can only undershoot and crash or burn up ... as there is no re-entry corridor! You will actually always burn up. Why does US Federal Aviation Authority produce above garbage? To confuse?

And how could NAXA know the forces and resulting movements of the Shuttle before sending it up into space? Will we ever know? Google just produces rubbish info:

Roughly half an hour (25 minutes) after the de-orbit burn, the 78.000 kg Shuttle began to encounter the effects of the atmosphere. Called entry interface, this point usually was at an altitude of about 130.000 m, and more than 8.000.000 m from landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. 

It was time to fasten seat belts!

Starting velocity was, as said above, 8.200 m/s at location B at 80.000 m altitude and final velocity 0 m/s, after 1.800 seconds. Average deceleration during 1.800 seconds landing is 5.6 m/s² or 0.57 g … only due to friction and airflow turbulence control with the small wing flaps.

It is enormous. And you shall also change direction and line up with the airfield coming up.


The potential energy of the Shuttle at 130.000 m altitude is say 78 000 x 130.000 x 9.8 = 100 GJ and the kinetic energy of the Shuttle at say 8 200 m/s velocity is 78000 x 8200²/2 = 2 622 GJ, i.e. the latter dominates. 

Average external force acting on the 78 ton Shuttle while braking during 1 800 seconds is 43 ton, i.e. collision contacts with air molecules and wing flaps turbulence produce that force, ~50% of the Shuttle's own weight! Realistically that force would rip apart the Shuttle. Or at least brake the windows in the cockpit.

 

3.3 Maneouvering of the Shuttle for re-entry

Early in re-entry, the Shuttle's orientation was controlled by the aft steering jets, the two OMs, part of the reaction control (?) system. When it is moving at about 8.200 m/s, the Shuttle starts hitting air molecules in the atmosphere and builds up heat from friction, approximately 1 650C, according some source. If 40.5 MJ/KG energy would be applied to concrete, it would heat up 46 000C, though! The basics of re-entry are also explained in part 2 of this article.

The Shuttle is covered with ceramic insulating materials designed to protect it from this heat. The materials include reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) on the wing surfaces and underside, high-temperature (!) black surface insulation tiles on the upper forward fuselage and around the windows, white Nomex blankets on the upper payload bay doors, portions of the upper wing and mid/aft fuselage and low-temperature (!) white surface tiles on the remaining areas. These materials are designed to absorb large quantities of heat without increasing their temperature very much, we are told. In other words, they have a high heat capacity (Source). It is of course very well! Nobody wants to burn up at re-entry.

A thermal protection system or TPS is the barrier that protects any spacecraft, incl. the Shuttle during the searing heat of atmospheric re-entry. We are thus told that:

Thermal soak is a part of almost all TPS schemes. For example, an ablative heat shield loses most of its thermal protection effectiveness when the outer wall temperature drops below the minimum necessary for pyrolysis. From that time to the end of the heat pulse, heat from the shock layer convects into the heat shield's outer wall and would eventually conduct to the payload.

Do you follow? There are more:

Typical Space Shuttle TPS tiles (LI-900) have remarkable thermal protection properties. An LI-900 tile exposed to a temperature of 1000K on one side will remain merely warm to the touch on the other side. However, they are relatively brittle and break easily, and cannot survive in-flight rain.

Where the heat escapes, nobody knows. Unfortunately the tiles are brittle and cannot stand rain! Of course it doesn't rain in space but imagine if you land on Earth and it rains!

How the high- and low-temperature tiles manage to reduce the speed of the Shuttle is also not clear.

Why are they not simply ripped off the surface, they are attached to by the friction forces. We do not know how they were attached. Glue? Cement?

An LI-900 tile to protect the Shuttle

Here is a 1986 description (100% fake pseudoscience) how the US Shuttle performs a re-entry and lands. It is dirt simple!

Source

Total re-entry takes 1 821 seconds from arriving at location B in the thermosphere at 120 000 m altitude. The 78 tons Shuttle arrives into the very thin thermosphere with speed only 7.500 m/s (and not 8 200 m/s) and the nose is forward - angle of attack is a constant 40° for about 1.000 seconds in the extremely thin atmosphere. After 300 seconds your Shuttle has dropped to about 80.000 m altitude (air density is only 0.00001846 kg/m3) into the mesosphere, while velocity remains about 7.250 m/s (Mach 22). No real braking has started because the atmosphere is very thin. The vertical speed is about 130 m/s and if you continue to drop at that speed you will hit ground after 600 seconds. But you take it easier. How is not clear!

Apollo 11 made the whole re-entry in less than 600 seconds 1969!

You have flown about 2.250 kms from location B and lost 40 000 m altitude, i.e. 1° down. And you haven't even started braking! It is assumed you fly straight on (with the IFS exactly above you). Maybe your landing trajectory is something like below provided by NAXA:

Imagine you arrive above Ft. Peck Lake, MT, at Mach 22 speed and shall land at Kennedy Space Centre about 20 minutes or 1.200 seconds later. It is only about 4.500.000 m away! But your next way point is NE of Tupelo, MS, about only 2.400.000 m away, which you pass at Mach 12 speed.

After another 600-700 seconds of re-entry velocity has thus dropped to 4.000 m/s (Mach 12) at 50.000 m altitude, where the atmosphere is still very thin (density 0.001027 kg/m3), and you have flown another 4.025.000 m (or total 6.275 kms) and you are not at NE of Tupelo, MS, only 2.400.000 m from Peck Lake. Actually you should be over the Atlantic Ocean but who cares. It is all fantasy!

If you are NE of Tupelo, MS, you are only about 1.100.000 m from KSC, where you shall land after about another 600-700 seconds. Is it possible? With average velocity 1 550 m/s during 700 seconds you will do it!

You continue to fly straight on.

But there is no 'real' air to fly in! You are still at 50 000 m altitude!

The potential and kinetic energy of a 70 000 kg Shuttle at 80 000 m altitude and 7 500 m/s velocity is
70 000*(80 000*9.8 + (7 500)²/2) = 2 023 630 000 kJ.

The potential and kinetic energy of the same 70 000 kg Shuttle at 50 000 m altitude and 4 000 m/s velocity is only 70 000*(50.000*9.8 + (4 000)²/2) = 593 300 000 kJ.

The difference 1 430 300 000 kJ has been absorbed one way or another by the Shuttle TPS tiles (LI-900), drag and turbulence.

If such a tile can absorb 418 680.0 kJ/kg (which I doubt) before getting damaged, it seems you need 3 400 kg of tiles glued on the Shuttle.

Question is - how can anything absorb 418 680.0 kJ/kg heat up in thin atmosphere/space?

There is really no evidence that you can slow down a Shuttle totally 3 500 m/s during 700 seconds (5 m/s² !) in the very thin atmosphere between 80 000 and 50 000 m altitude, where meteoroides are vaporized.

Anybody suggesting that you can fly with a Shuttle at Mach 20 (Pierre SD) to 10 (Coulombus, GA) between 80.000 and 50.000 m altitude with nose up 40° is simply lying. Anyway, it is assumed to continue flying straight ahead.

Now the pilot reduces the angle of attack from 40° to 5° - nose is dropped - during another 800 seconds and the velocity and altitude is reduced to 0 = you have landed. The deceleration is 5 m/s² but there is no evidence that it is possible to brake as suggested in the rather thin atmosphere above 10 000 m altitude.

The tiles below the wings and body heat up to only max 1 200C and internal structure heats up only to say 120C during the peak heating region (?) we are told.

If you pass Jacksonville at Mach 4 (~1.300 m/s speed) and at 30 000 m altitude, there is only about 240 000 m to stop! With average speed 650 m/s it will take about 360 seconds. And you approach ground at !!!! A little later, it is reported elsewhere (see below) that:

At 25 miles (40 km) out, the Shuttle 's landing computers give up control to the commander. The commander flies the Shuttle around an imaginary cylinder (18,000 feet or 5,500 m in diameter) to line the Shuttle up with the runway and drop the altitude.

In reality you should just go faster and faster - no braking - while getting hotter and hotter, when you break up and burn up at about 50.000 m altitude! Like a meteorite.

All videos of live on TV shows of any Shuttle coming in for landing just shows it at about 100 m/s speed for several minutes almost horizontal - nose up 1° ... as an air plane ... and then it touches down. Ridiculous.

Imagine you shall land a Shuttle in 1 821 seconds starting at 120 000 meters altitude where there is on real air. The trajectory is almost 8 000 000 meters long and the average speed during landing is more than 4.400 m/s, i.e. about 15 minutes before landing your speed is still enormous (Mach 13!) ... and your landing strip is maybe only 4 000 meters long. It is very easy to miss it all together. If you continue at average speed, you will pass the landing strip in one (1) second.

There must be records showing how ground controllers assists the Shuttle to touch down doing turns at say 4 400 m/s speed ... but I doubt it. The Shuttles we have seen landing have just been dropped off from the top of a normal jumbo jet. Every Shuttle landing was 100% fake.

Right is the same (fake) description of the Shuttle re-entry and landing:

During re-entry, the aft steering jets help to keep the Shuttle at its 40° nose up attitude, we are told, i.e. the Shuttle has now flipped 180° over with nose forward at 77.000 m altitude. The hot ionized gases of the atmosphere that surround the Shuttle prevented radio communication with the ground for about 12 minutes (i.e., ionization blackout).

After this phase of re-entry the Shuttle finally encounters the main air of the atmosphere at 77 kms altitude >20 Mach speed and is able to fly like an airplane. The velocity is reduced as per figure right during the 5 000 kms landing trajectory.

Source

(note how the Shuttle arrives in Earth's atmosphere at 7 300 m/s speed at only 77 kms altitude and then flies about 2 200 kms to reduce speed to 6 700 m/s at 74 kms altitude, etc, etc. With average speed 3 650 m/s, the landing takes 1 370 seconds or about 23 minutes. All nonsense of course! The re-entry from 400 kms to 130 kms altitude took another 25 minutes (see above). The time to go from 130 kms to 77 kms altitude is not known but it seems the whole re-entry took less than an hour. You wonder what science fiction writer composed the Source)


Therefore, the Shuttle flies less like a spacecraft (nose backward) and more like an aircraft (nose forward) at re-entry, we shall believe. Its aero surfaces - the wing flaps and rudder - gradually become active as air pressure builds up. LOL!

As those surfaces become usable, the steering jets turn off automatically. But how do you really brake?  According to Wikipeculiar a Shuttle must at a re-entry speed of 7.800 m/s approach the atmosphere from space at an angle between 5.5° and 6.9° tangential to the entry point. Above 6.9° the friction will be excessive and the Shuttle will burn up or crash. Below 5.5° the Shuttle will bounce off and expulsion (!) back into space will occur and you have to try again. According other sources the Shuttle flies backwards into the atmosphere and the steering/brake jet engines facing forward reduce (sic) speed to say 7 500 m/s (it should increase to 8.200 m/s), when you flip around 180° and dip into the atmosphere with the nose up forward with 40° angle of attack as shown above. The whole Shuttle thing is evidently a backwards/forwards joke. Nobody seems to know how to land!

But plenty people have done this not once but several times. Susan Jane Helms (right - born February 26, 1958), a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and a NAXA trashtronut has for example done it five times.

Selected by NAXA in January 1990, Helms became a trashtronut in July 1991. She flew on STS-54 (1993), STS-64 (1994), STS-78 (1996), STS-101 (2000) and served aboard the International Space Station as a member of the ISS Expedition 2 crew (2001) and returned with STS-105.

A veteran of five amazing (fake) space flights and Shuttle re-entries, Helms logged 5.064 (fake) hours in space, including a (fake) EVA of 8 hours and 56 minutes (world record). She can be reached at Gen_Susanhelms@usa.com or gen.susan_helms66@yahoo.com, if anybody is interested to know more about the fantasies from her direct.

Trashtronut Susan Jane Helms

If you search Google for images of  "us space shuttle reentry at 80 000 m altitude", you will not find any pictures. I consider the Shuttle high altitude re-entry air braking impossible and part of the NAXA space hoax.

 

 

3.4 Wing flaps and rudder movements decelerate the Shuttle

Above NAXA "long (1 second) exposure" photo (http://www.NAXA.gov/images/content/573233main_image_2014_946-710.jpg) shows the space Shuttle Atlantis, appearing like a bean sprout against clouds and city lights, on its way home braking through the atmosphere, as outlined above and below. It was allegedly long exposured taken by the Expedition 28 crew of the International Space Station. Airglow over Earth can be seen in the background if you have sharp eyes. I can just see clouds. The photo does not look real in my view, i.e. it is another NAXA fake.

One of my ex NAXA PR-agents Daggerstab wonders "Ever heard of "long exposure", Björkman?" He is another stupid NAXA SF writer trying to make ends meet in Arizona! Try to make a long exposure of Earth below photo from a space vehicle at 7.800 m/s speed. Thanks for the PR!

Zakalwe is another Apollohoax fool, ex NAXA, believing that taking 6 hrs exposure photos from Earth through a, probably stabilized, telescope (if the photo is real) is same as clicking one second faked photos from a non-existing ISS. Back to subject. Any high speed, 7 800 m/s, ISS photographer must come back on Earth and stop at 0 m/s and show his photos ... how is it done?

To use up excess energy whilst braking from 8 200 m/s to below 100 m/s velocity, for which Apollo 11 needed a heat shield, the Shuttle performed a series of four steep banks, rolling over as much as 80 degrees to one side or the other, to slow down, NAXA suggests. The series of banks gives the Shuttle's track toward landing an appearance similar to an elongated letter "S." How that produce brake force at say 4 000 m/s speed is not clear.

Here are three (100% fake) videos, 1, 2 ,3 of what happens inside the dark Shuttle cockpit at the high speed re-entries. It seems they fly forwards, while looking out through the windows that don't melt due to friction or is pushed in due to high external pressure, etc. The cockpit is probably a simple mock-up fixed on the ground in a NAXA Hollywood studio as part of the cheap hoax. 

The last US pilot allegedly doing these remarkable, impossible maneuvers 2011 was US super hero Capt. Mark Kelly, whose wife US Congress woman Gaby Giffords had been shot in the head some time earlier at a Tucson, AZ, supermarket. Crazy world, to say the least, isn't it? Actually the pilot Mark Kelly did nothing at this stage but watched the show strapped in his seat with 0.55g acting on him. The Shuttle was on auto-pilot. If the pilot was not strapped, he would fly through the windows in front of him. See Mark Kelly at the ISS in a fake video prior re-entry!

As the Shuttle sliced through the atmosphere faster than the speed of sound (say 340 m/s), the sonic boom -- really, two distinct claps less than a second apart -- could be heard across parts of Florida, depending on the flight path, we are told. 

Yes, we could, according NAXA, both see (at least from above if you were on the ISS!) and hear (a double sonic boom!!) when a spaceship was re-entering Earth atmosphere from space, e.g. a shuttle from the ISS:

 "Although it is possible to view a spacecraft re-entry with the unaided eye, it is not possible to see the Shuttle re-entry if the re-entry flight path is in broad daylight since the plasma trail created as the Shuttle passes through the atmosphere is not bright enough to contrast with the sky. Naked eye viewing of the re-entry itself is best when the observer's site has very clear skies, and the observer is in complete darkness or very close to local sunrise or sunset if you know precisely where to look. 

Even if you know you cannot see the Shuttle re-entry due to lighting or cloud problems, it is possible to hear the double sonic boom from the Shuttle if it is not too far away. It takes sounds about 1100 feet/sec (300 m/s) to propagate to the ground; thus if the Shuttle is 200,000 feet (60 000 m) away from you at its closest distance during re-entry along your line of sight, it would nominally take around 96 seconds for the sound to reach your ears AFTER the shuttle passed that point. For the human ear to detect the boom(s) you should be far away from noises, especially traffic noise."

OK, a plasma trail, whatever it is, can maybe not be seen - what is it?, and of course, that clouds, rain and fog will make seeing difficult is obvious. But hearing? Plasma is otherwise ionized hot gas - air - >50 000C, when cutting steel and you should wonder how the Shuttle survived it.

As noise cannot propagate in vacuum and propagates extremely slow in a thin atmosphere, e.g. 1 000 times slower than a landing spaceship itself at 130 000 m altitude, how can a sonic boom or two claps (?) from a shuttle propagate from space to ground?

A sonic boom only occurs when a jet plane, close to ground, accelerates and pushes air waves ahead of it that cannot escape and then the air produces a sonic boom, when the plane accelerates beyond the local speed of sound.

Typical sonic boom overpressure of a space Shuttle is only 1.25 pounds at speed of Mach 1.5, i.e. abt. 450 m/s at 18 000 m (60.000 feet) altitude at landing approach, NAXA tells us. You wonder of course what the overpressure was at 8 200 m/s speed? Wouldn't it tear the Shuttle apart? Or at least break the front window?

No! The Shuttle's original velocity of 8 200 m/s then eased, we are happy to be told, below the speed of sound (340 m/s at sea level and 20C) about 25 statute miles (40 000 m) from the runway. As the Shuttle nears the Shuttle Landing Facility, SLF, the commander, i.e. the pilot, e.g. super hero Kelly, finally takes manual control, piloting the vehicle to touchdown on one of two ends of the SLF. But flying backwards trying to brake with the jet engines you can only slow down 303 m/s.

Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky has established that the change in velocity, Delta-v, of a spacecraft in space (no influence of gravity of an adjacent planet or Moon) is a function of the mass ratio (spacecraft mass before, m0 and after, m1 firing the rocket engine, difference m0 - m1 being the fuel mass ejected as exhaust gas and the exhaust velocity ve of gas leaving the spaceship rocket nozzle.

Delta-v = ve ln (m0/m1)

Example 3 - you want to slow down a 78.000 kg (m0) Shuttle entering the atmosphere backwards at a horisontal speed of 7.800 m/s (no influence of gravity). You have only 8.000 kg of fuel aboard and it is ejected at a velocity ve of 2.800 m/s. m1 = 70.000 kg. Delta-v is only 303 m/s! After burning all fuel your speed will be 7.497 m/s - flying backwards.

The above apparently applies to the Shuttle getting back in one piece from the IFS to Earth using very advanced, impossible (?), very high altitude, thin atmosphere braking maneuvers using friction and air turbulence, believe it or not. It seems very complicated compared with Apollo 11's heat shield ... and equally impossible. Probably the Shuttle was just launched from an airplane at 10.000 meter altitude, made no supersonic flight to produce a fake sonic boom and then landed on the SLF with cameras recording the show 30 minutes later? It never went to the ISS. Somebody should ask Capt. Kelly (retired) about it.

 

3.5 Repeat explanation of a Shuttle re-entry and landing

The Shuttle's Return to Earth is also confusingly, and differently, explained at http://science.howstuffworks.com/space-shuttle.htm/printable. I have copied/pasted bits and pieces of below info above, but a repeat does not hurt. It is evidently all fake because nobody knows how to fake it!

For a successful return to Earth and landing, dozens of things have to go just right, we are told.

First, the empty Shuttle, 151 205 lbs (about 69 000 kg) must be manoeuvred into the proper position. This is crucial to a safe landing. Say it also has 9.000 kg of fuel and the total mass is 78.000 kg.

To brake the Shuttle you must use the OMS/RCS. There are two OMS thrusters. Each OMS engine can produce 6,000 lb (2.722kg) (26.400 N) of thrust, we are told.

Two OMS produce 52.800 N thrust. This thrust applied to an empty 69 000 kg Shuttle brakes the Shuttle at 52 800/69 000 = 0.77 m/s²

But how much fuel is required to provide 52 800 N thrust?

Compare with events #5 and 6 in Part 2 (for Apollo 11 braking in space). There you only reduce the speed of a lighter 43 574 kg spacecraft from 2 400 m/s to 1.500 m/s using 97 400 N thrust for 357.5 seconds and you need 10 898 kg of fuel for it. The Shuttle is almost twice as heavy and three or four times faster and therefore needs much more fuel to brake.

The two OMS engines together can brake the Shuttle by 2 ft/s² (0.6 m/s²), we are told. This deceleration can reduce the Shuttle's velocity by as much as 1,000 ft/s (305 m/s).

To de-orbit for re-entry takes about 100-500 ft/s (31-153 m/s) change in velocity (we are told). Orbital adjustments take about 2 ft/s (0.61 m/s) change in velocity. The engines can start and stop 1,000 times and have a total of 15 h burn time. (Do you really have fuel for 15 h burn time?)

When a mission is finished (?) and the Shuttle is halfway around the world from the landing site (Kennedy Space Center, Edwards Air Force Base), mission control gives the command to come home, which prompts the crew to:

1. Close the cargo bay doors. In most cases, they have been flying nose-first and upside down, so they then fire the RCS thrusters to turn the Shuttle tail first, i.e. you fly backwards.

2. Once the Shuttle is tail first, the crew fires the OMS engines to slow the Shuttle down and fall back to Earth from 400 000 meter altitude; it will take about 25 minutes or 1500 seconds before the Shuttle reaches the upper atmosphere.

The starting speed is 7 800 m/s and the final speed is say 200 m/s. If the mean speed is 4 000 m/s you travel 6 000 000 meter while braking in the atmosphere. Braking deceleration may be 4000/1500= 2.67 m/s². But two OMS engines can only brake the Shuttle 0.6 m/s² (so you wonder what is going on!)

3. At the end of that time, 25 minutes or 1 500 seconds, the crew fires the RCS thrusters to pitch the Shuttle over so that the bottom of the Shuttle faces the atmosphere (about 40 degrees) and they are moving nose first again. The fuel consumption is 9000/1500=6 kg/s.

4. Finally, they burn leftover fuel from the forward RCS as a safety precaution because this area encounters the highest heat of re-entry.

Because it is moving at about 17,000 mph (28,000 km/h or 7 800 m/s), the Shuttle hits air molecules and builds up heat from friction (approximately 3000 degrees F, or 1650 degrees C). But is it possible?

The kinetic energy of the 78 000 kg Shuttle is when starting re-entry 78 000*7 800²/2 = 2 372 760 000 000 Joule.

Can two OMS engines really brake a 69 tons Shuttle from 7 800 m/s to 200 m/s speed using 9 tons of fuel?

The orbiter is covered with ceramic insulating materials designed to protect it from this heat. The materials include:

" Reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) on the wing surfaces and underside

" High-temperature black surface insulation tiles on the upper forward fuselage and around the windows (but how are the windows protected?)

" White Nomex blankets on the upper payload bay doors, portions of the upper wing and mid/aft fuselage

" Low-temperature white surface tiles on the remaining areas

These materials are designed to absorb large quantities of heat without increasing their temperature very much. In other words, they have a high heat capacity.

Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, is a measurable physical quantity; it is the ratio of the heat added to (or subtracted from) an object to the resulting temperature change. The SI unit of heat capacity is Joule per degree Kelvin, Say that the heat capacity is 800 J/K per kg Shuttle. It means the complete Shuttle will heat up about 38 000K during re-entry if all braking is friction forgetting the rocket engines.

During re-entry, the aft steering jets help to keep the Shuttle at its 40 degree attitude. The hot ionized gases of the atmosphere that surround the Shuttle prevent radio communication with the ground for about 12 minutes (i.e., ionization blackout).

When re-entry is successful (!), the Shuttle encounters the main air of the atmosphere and is able to fly like an airplane (at 200 m/s speed). The Shuttle is designed from a lifting body design with swept back "delta" wings. With this design, the Shuttle can generate lift with a small wing area. At this point, flight computers fly the Shuttle. The Shuttle makes a series of S-shaped, banking turns to slow its descent speed as it begins its final approach to the runway.

The commander picks up a radio beacon from the runway (Tactical Air Navigation System) when the Shuttle is about 140 miles (225 km) away from the landing site and 150,000 feet (45,700 m) high. At 25 miles (40 km) out, the Shuttle 's landing computers give up control to the commander. The commander flies the Shuttle around an imaginary cylinder (18,000 feet or 5,500 m in diameter) to line the Shuttle up with the runway and drop the altitude. During the final approach, the commander steepens the angle of descent to minus 20 degrees (almost seven times steeper than the descent of a commercial airliner).

When the Shuttle is 2,000 ft (610 m) above the ground, the commander pulls up the nose to slow the rate of descent.


The pilot deploys the landing gear and the Shuttle touches down. The commander brakes the Shuttle and the speed brake on the vertical tail opens up. A parachute is deployed from the back to help stop the Shuttle. The parachute and the speed brake on the tail increase the drag on the Shuttle. The Shuttle stops about midway to three-quarters of the way down the runway.

After landing, the crew goes through the shutdown procedures to power down the spacecraft. This process takes about 20 minutes. During this time, the Shuttle is cooling and noxious gases, which were made during the heat of re-entry, blow away. Once the Shuttle is powered down, the crew exits the vehicle. Ground crews are on-hand to begin servicing the Shuttle.

It is a nice story. All fantasy, of course! NAXA cannot provide any evidence that high altitude (10 000 - 120 000 m) air braking is possible at all. The air is simply much too thin for any air braking. Anything trying to land as the Shuttle will just go faster and faster while getting hotter and hotter until it breaks apart and burns up. Another unprofessional fantasy description is here: It is garbage:

"The entry phase of flight begins approximately five minutes before entry interface, which occurs at an altitude of 400,000 feet (120.000 m). At EI minus five minutes, the orbiter is at an altitude of about 557,000 feet (170.000 m), traveling at 25,400 feet per second (7.700 m/s) , and is approximately 4,400 nautical miles (8.150 kms) (5,063 statute miles) from the landing site. The goal of guidance, navigation and flight control software is to guide and control the orbiter from this state (in which aerodynamic forces are not yet felt) through the atmosphere to a precise landing on the designated runway. All of this must be accomplished without exceeding the thermal or structural limits of the orbiter.

The entry phase is divided into three separate phases because of the unique software requirements. Entry extends from EI minus five minutes to terminal area energy management interface at an altitude of approximately 83,000 feet (25 000 m), at a velocity of 2,500 feet per second (760 m/s), 52 nautical miles (96 kms) (59 statute miles) from the runway and within a few degrees of tangency with the nearest heading alignment cylinder in major mode 304. ...

During the entry subphase, the primary objective is to dissipate the tremendous amount of energy that the orbiter possesses when it enters the atmosphere so that it does not burn up (entry angle too steep) or skip out of the atmosphere (entry angle too shallow), stays within structural limits, and arrives at the TAEM interface with the altitude and range to the runway necessary for a landing. ...

During entry, the commander's and pilot's altitude director indicators become two-axis balls displaying body roll and pitch attitudes with respect to local vertical/local horizontal. These are generated in the attitude processor from IMU data. ...

During entry, the commander's and pilot's horizontal situation indicators display a pictorial view of the spacecraft's location with respect to various navigation points. The navigation attitude processor provides the inputs to the HSI until the communications blackout is passed, at approximately 145,000 feet (44 000 m). ...

In the entry phase, navigation software functions as it did during the deorbit phase (three state vectors corresponding to each IMU) except that additional external sensor data are sequentially incorporated. These data provide the accuracy necessary to bring the orbiter to a pinpoint landing and, to some extent, to maintain vehicle control. The TACAN system, which becomes available at about 156,000 feet (47.000 m), provides slant range and magnetic bearing to various fixed stations around the landing site. ...

The entry trajectory, vertical situation and horizontal situation CRT displays, then, are used by the flight crew to monitor the GN&C; software. They can also be used by the crew to determine whether a manual takeover is required.

Curator: Kim Dismukes | Responsible NAXA Official: John Ira Petty | Updated: 02/13/2003"

You wonder why these clowns invent new types of re-entries all the the time. How long a Shuttle re-entry takes in this version is not indicated. An hour? And what about the trajectory?

Anyway, it is interesting to compare all versions of Shuttle re-entries and landings. They all differ because there is no way a Shuttle can land arriving from space at 400 000 m altitude.

If you search Google for images of  "us space shuttle landings", you'll find plenty pictures like the one right but they all show the Shuttle just 100 metres above ground at slow speed with the flimsy landing gear extended and no wing flaps down (no braking)!

You should really wonder how the landing gear tyres of rubber or steel behind the thin plate hatches survived a week in vacuum space and then the re-entry pressures and heat just before landing. They just look like ordinary air plane tyres ... and not a spacecraft tyre.

Shuttle landing - note the wing trailing edge flaps are not down for braking
 

 

3.6 Christer Fuglesang

Christer Fuglesang is a Swedish trashtronut that has participated in two (fake) Space Shuttle missions 2006 and 2008 and done five (fake) spacewalks, and is the first person outside of the United States or Russian space programs to participate in more than three (fake) spacewalks. Christer is today a professor (LOL) at The Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, lecturing about Human Spaceflight, course SD2905. I have evidently asked trashtronot Christer to explain how he managed to re-enter and land on Earth with the Shuttle after the visits in space and to collect 1M winning my Challenge. Evidently Christer has not been able to collect. It would appear that Christer has never been in space. Christer is just a bad actor. And a very stupid engineer. Christer proves my point - moon travel does not work, BUT, there is plenty money to collect from stupid tax payers, when you suggest otherwise. Stupid taxpayers love cheating. 

 

3.7 The US Space Shuttle

The US Space Shuttle was developed in the 1970's by Rockwell, when everything was possible and people believed you could re-enter from a trip in space Apollo style. Rockwell was even dreaming up a 74 passenger Orbiter Transport (right).

But soon they found out no type of Shuttle could ever re-enter from space. So they decided to fake e v er y t h i n g!

I thus believe, based on above findings, that the US Space Shuttle program 1981-2011 was a 100% hoax. The vehicle shown landing below is just an empty mock-up or model of a Shuttle weighing say 5 tons (not 70+ tons) that has been dropped off from an air plane. The landing gear seems suitable just for that. That the Shuttle has been up in space and performed a re-entry heating up the bottom (and the landing gear + doors) to 1 650C is not possible.

Shuttle Atlantis May 2009 landing hoax - note the wing trailing edge flaps are not down for braking

The 30 years US Space Shuttle program 1981-2011 with 135 launches and 100's of astronuts was therefore 100% fake from start to end. Instead of a real, manned orbiter being sent up it was just a cheap, empty mockup costing little that disappeared behind the clouds. A few, other orbiters were dropped off from a plane to simulate landings.

A fake Shuttle was put on a NAXA jumbo jet prior each landing and dropped off in the air. The Shuttle could then glide and touch down

 

 So Shuttle STS-107 Columbia's Final Re-Entry: A Voyage into History never took place:

The shuttle Columbia blasted off on mission STS-107 at 10:39 a.m. on Jan. 16, 2003. …

Flying upside down and backward over the Indian Ocean, commander Rick Husband and pilot William "Willie" McCool fired Columbia's twin orbital maneuvering system braking rockets at 8:15:30 a.m. EST on Feb. 1, 2003, to begin the shuttle's long glide back to Earth. There were no signs of any technical problems and the weather at the Kennedy Space Center was improving after initial concerns about cloud cover. …

The shuttle Columbia suffered a catastrophic failure returning to Earth Saturday, breaking apart 207,135 feet above Texas en route to a landing at the Kennedy Space Center to close out a 16-day science mission. The shuttle's seven-member crew - two women and five men, including the first Israeli space flier - perished in the disaster, the first loss of life on the high frontier since the 1986 Challenger disaster. 

Nobody died in space on Feb. 1, 2003. It was all 100% fake! Imagine the efforts of NAXA to fake a space accident assisted by media: fake crew members, blast off, re-entry, accident, accident investigation, findings, recommendations, lessons learnt, bla, bla, bla.

 

 

4.1 Latest re-entry news 2013

Nowadays humans allegedly fly to the ISS and back (re-entry!) using a Russian Soyuz space capsule. How it manages to get down on Earth undamaged is clear - it must crash:

"There are 3 different types of descent profiles (!) for the Soyuz. The normal type of landing is a controlled descent, where the automation software constantly orients the descent vehicle (i.e. the Soyuz space capsule) by its flat lower part to the Earth, ensuring lift due to the incidental airflow, and also inflicting minimum overloads on the crew up to 4 gravities. If for whatever reason the automation fails (as has happened in the TMA series to date with Soyuz TMA-1, TMA-10 and TMA-11) a backup program prompts the capsule to enter on a shorter and more severe ballistic trajectory. The capsule is rotated around its axis to mimimize the g-forces on the crew (it would otherwise fall like a stone and possibly kill them), though they still experience up to 8.5 g’s."

It sound easy Automatic or using a back-up! But you crash anyway! Another Soyuz re-entry description is:

... the Soyuz has an unusual sequence of events prior to re-entry. The spacecraft (3) is turned engine-forward and the main engine is fired for de-orbiting fully 180° ahead of its planned landing site. This requires the least propellant for re-entry, the spacecraft traveling on an elliptical Hohmann orbit (2) to a point where it will be low enough (1) in the atmosphere to re-enter.

Early Soyuz spacecraft would then have the service and orbital modules detach simultaneously. As they are connected by tubing and electrical cables to the descent module, this would aid in their separation and avoid having the descent module alter its orientation. Later Soyuz spacecraft detach the orbital module before firing the main engine, which saves even more propellant, enabling the descent module to return more payload. In no case can the orbital module remain in orbit as an addition to a space station, for the hatch enabling it to function as an airlock is part of the descent module.

Re-entry firing is done on the "dawn" side of the Earth, so that the spacecraft can be seen by recovery helicopters as it descends in the evening twilight, illuminated by the sun when it is above the shadow of the Earth.  

Regardless - you just go faster and faster to finally crash! According NAXA the propulsion compartment of a Soyuz space capsule:

Hohmann transfer orbit (2) works to bring a Soyuz capsule from the ISS in a higher orbit (3) at a certain speed into a lower one (1) - top of Earth atmosphere - at much higher speed, so that air friction can reduce the velocity again. Evidently it doesn't work! The spacecraft just goes faster and faster from (3) to (1) until it crashes

... contains the system that is used to perform any maneuvers while in orbit, including rendezvous and docking with the Space Station and the deorbit burns necessary to return to Earth. The propellants are nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetric-dimethylhydrazine. The main propulsion system and the smaller reaction control system, used for attitude changes while in space, share the same propellant tanks.

How much fuel is carried and how much fuel is used to de-orbit are not clear anywhere (of course)!

A Soyuz space capsule return from the ISS takes 3 hours 23 minutes, we are told. For a small body orbiting another, very much larger body (such as a satellite orbiting the earth), the total energy of the orbiting body, i.e. the Soyuz capsule, is the sum of its kinetic energy and potential energy. The Soyuz capsule may have a mass of 3.000 kg and an initial speed of 7.500 m/s at 400.000 m altitude (3) and probably 7.850 m/s at 121.920 m altitude (1) (the total energy remains same in spite of the de-orbit burn) ... i.e. orbital speed increases at lower altitude, when you re-enter.

The European Space Agency, ESA, has 2013 produced a video how re-entry is done. It is a nice piece of propaganda. ESA astronuts Frank de Winne and Paolo Nespoli are lying through their noses, but they are paid for it!. 

So during re-entry at >7500 m/s speed and before reaching the top of the atmosphere (to start braking) they fire a rocket engine for several minutes at the exact direction, location and duration to reduce speed by only 120 m/s! Then the spacecraft splits up into three parts - two that burn up and one with the cosmo clowns that surfs through the atmosphere, while the crew is watching the plasma through the window (and its cover).

"We on Earth do not understand how strong a force gravity is, blah, blah, blah!"

The noise inside the capsule is also great!

Gagarin managed his re-entry 1961 and the Apollo 11 crew its re-entry 1969 without all these preparations. They also lied about it.  

When Apollo 11 re-entered from the Moon in 1969 it went straight into the atmosphere at 11.400 m/s speed, then up again and then down again and landed. The Soyuz space capsule apparently takes it easier using its rocket engine to de-orbit Hohmann style during three hours 15 minutes and get down to a lower altitude ... but then is goes into the atmosphere at say 7.850 m/s speed and 8 minutes later parachutes are deployed.

The Soyuz spacecraft is thus released from the ISS at a suitable time and altitude (3) and 3 hours 15 minutes later, after a de-orbit burn, it reaches atmosphere Entry Interface (1) at 121.920 m altitude and probably 7.850 m/s velocity and Russian re-entry starts. Only 8 minutes later parachutes are deployed, probably at <250 m/s velocity and 15 minutes later the spacecraft lands. But how is it done?

The deceleration during re-entry and parachute deployment is 7.750/480 = 16.15 m/s² and with average velocity 3.975 m/s during 480 s, the trajectory during re-entry is 1.908.000 m. You should of course wonder what kind of Russian heat shield can perform such a deceleration without burning up?

Soyuz space capsule re-entry and landning - easy as a pie! In reality you drop it off an airplane at 10 000 m altitude ...

Neither NAXA nor the Russian space agency will inform how the braking - the reduction of speed - in atmosphere takes place and what type of heat shield is used! 

A 1974 description of US and Soviet re-entries is found here. The Soviets then re-entered like a bullet and nobody knows how it stopped. The US therefore preferred a blunt shape with a heat shield with an ablative coating for re-entry. How it works is still 2017 or 43 years later not known. Let's conclude - it is all fantasy!

The private US SpaceX spaceship Dragon has done the same, impossible, thing starting October 28, 2012, when the Dragon capsule dropped into the Pacific just outside Los Angeles. Its PICA-X heat shield is private property, i.e. no details are available. I evidently assume the SpaceX Dragon was dropped into the Pacific from a plane having taken off from a nearby airport ... Hollywood style ... and never visited the ISS .

PICA stands for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Like all the other ablative heat shields, PICA-X is salvageable rather than truly reusable, SpaceX tells us. The improved and easier to manufacture version called PICA-X was developed by SpaceX in 2006-2010 for the Dragon space capsule.

The first re-entry test of a PICA-X heat shield was on the Dragon C1 mission on 8 December 2010. The PICA-X heat shield was designed, developed and fully qualified by a small team of only a dozen engineers and technicians in less than four years. PICA-X is ten times less expensive to manufacture than the NAXA PICA heat shield material. Imagine that - 10 times less expensive to manufacture! But does it really work? There is no evidence available anywhere.

So what idiots are up there at the ISS using heat shields getting down that have not been tested, you should ask? 

Answer is probably nobody. The whole thing is a stupid joke, i.e. a hoax, mainly paid for by US tax payers with the Russians chipping in some kopeks or rubels. It is interesting to note that the same asskosmonites are now going back up there to the ISS ... to keep the number of people in the know to a minimum.

 

4.2 The X-37B unmanned spaceship landing October 2014

In October 2014 the US Air Force's Rapid Capabilities Office informed that they had - top secret - sent another Shuttle like spaceship into space 2 years earlier orbiting Earth - like the ISF - and that it had just made a succesful re-entry and landed. If you have read until here, you understand it is just another US hoax. Evidently no X-37B ever was in space! It is just a fake video of a rocket taking off and a mock up of the spaceship on Earth. Doesn't cost much. But not funny. Just stupid.

 

4.3 ESA Experimental Spaceplane IXV February 2015

11 February 2015 the European Space Agency, ESA, suddenly sent its light weight 1 990 kg, about 5 meters long spaceplane IXV up into space to test its European re-entry capability:

"The entry speed of 7500 m/s at an altitude of 120.000 m created the same conditions as those for a vehicle returning from low Earth orbit."

we were told.

Better fake it yourself!

The whole trip took 100 minutes and then the IXV splashed down in the Pacific, where it was picked up by somebody on 12 February 2015.

There are no photos of the IXV dropping down from the sky slowly hanging in parachutes.

Only a photo of it floating almost submerged (right)

The paint was hardly scratched and the aft end steering flaps were also as new. Nobody really believed it had done a re-entry at 7 500 m/s speed at 120 000 m altitude and >1 600C heat (or whatever?).

The photo below of IXV is as real as a 2015 EU 3 bill.

 

 

5.1 NAXA is again fooling the world 5-6 August 2012 - Did friction or a parachute decelerate the Mars Science Laboratory spaceship in the very thin Mars atmosphere?

The Mars Science Laboratory, MSL, spacecraft is described at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Science_Laboratory and the landing on Mars (?) at http://www.bis-space.com/2012/08/03/642 ... pdate-no-4.

The Mars Science Laboratory, MSL, spacecraft had an entry-descent-landing (EDL) system (2 401 kg + 390 kg of propellant) and an 899 kg (1,980 lb) mobile rover with an integrated instrument package, total weight 3 690 kg. It had been dispatched from Earth at great velocity months earlier direction Mars. During trip to Mars the start velocity was slowed down by Sun gravity. The MSL apparently was approaching planet Mars at velocity about 6 000 m/s due to Mars gravity working on it for some time prior arrival and no braking was taking place, so the kinetic energy involved was 66.42 GJ (which is quite a lot - 18 450 kWh) at entry Mars atmosphere.

On 5-6 August 2012 the Mars Science Laboratory (watch the stupid video) spaceship allegedly landed on Mars according NAXA/JPL. Watch the stupid reportage and the absolutely hilarious press conference. Just ask yourself, if these guys seem like real scientists. Notice that they are unable to answer any substantive questions from the audience. The below figure (based on info from links above) of the parabolic descent is evidently not to scale. The spacecraft enters the Mars atmosphere at a very small angle of inclination and then travels over 1 200 kilometers in the Mars atmosphere before reaching the Touchdown area:

Also at http://marsprogram.jpl.NAXA.gov/msl/multimedia/interactives/edlcuriosity/indexV2-2.html

The thin Mars atmosphere between 125 000 and 11 000 meters decelerated the MSL by friction from 6 000 m/s to 450 m/s during 255 seconds. With average speed 3 225 m/s the friction only brake distance was 822 375 meters. A parachute was reportedly deployed to start braking the spacecraft at 11 000 meter altitude ... at speed 450 m/s. The parachute ride lasted 165 seconds. You really wonder what magic parachute can do that! The parachute, allegedly built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, had 80 suspension lines, measured more than 50 meters in length, and opened to a diameter of nearly 17 meters. It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built. If it really worked in the thin Mars atmosphere is not proven anywhere. Mars' atmosphere is 100 times thinner than Earth's and I have doubts that a parachute will work there.

  

5.2 xx7 minutes of terror

The spacecraft rover landed 420 seconds later at virtually 0 m/s speed. Imagine that! The MSL spacecraft landed 4 times quicker on Mars than Apollo 11 on Earth 43 years earlier. There is progress. JPL called it seven minutes of terror. You wonder why? It was all automatic.

The Mars atmosphere is pretty thin and light; atmospheric pressure on the Mars ground is only 10 hPa compared with a pressure of 1 000 hPa on Earth. In spite of this, we are told the parachute worked. The last 20 seconds rockets assisted the braking. Mars gravity is also much weaker than Earth gravity.

The entry velocity was 6 000 m/s. How NAXA knows the velocity of its spacecrafts is not explained anywhere (but it was by another sputnik orbiting Mars). Time from Entry into Mars atmosphere until Touchdown at Ground Zero was then 420 seconds.

The average speed in Mars atmosphere was thus 3 225 m/s during 255 seconds and 225 m/s during 165 seconds. It means that the MSL spacecraft travelled 822 375 meter in the Mars atmosphere without parachute and 37 125 meter hanging in a parachute.

The vertical travel down was only 125 000 meter through the Mars atmosphere. 114 000 meter took 255 seconds or average 447 m/s. The last 11 000 meter took 165 seconds or average 67 m/s.

The angle of entry into the thin top Mars atmosphere must have been something like 5.67°or close to horizontal.

Imagine if the entry into the atmosphere at 125 000 meter altitude had been deployed 15 seconds too late and that braking had started 15 seconds late. What would be the result? Right - the spacecraft would have landed 90 kilometers away from the planned Touchdown position in the 150 kilometers diameter Gale crater! Only 90 kilometers. It might have hit the side of the 5 000 meters high mountains around the Gale crater then.

Imagine if the parachute was less effective than expected (as it had never been tested in a thin atmosphere) and the average vertical velocity was 20% greater or 80 m/s during decent. What would be the result? Right - the spacecraft would touch ground after 137 seconds at high absolute velocity. The spacecraft would probably crash.

On the other hand imagine, if the average vertical decent speed was 20% less, you would stop high above ground and drop down vertically below the parachutes at the end. No rockets would be required at all!

NAXA/JPL cannot use average velocities to predict the location of Touchdown. They must use an algorithm that calculates absolute positions and velocities in 3-D all the time, while the spaceship is decelerated by the parachute ... and adjust if something goes wrong!

Let's face it. There is no way that a parachute of any kind can be used to stop a spacecraft with 3 690 kg mass and 6 000 m/s entry velocity after a 860 kilometer ride through thin Mars atmosphere at a given, pre-planned spot on Mars. It only happens in SF fairy tales. Prove me wrong and earn 1M!

As above was not possible, JPL has published another scenario:

Sources: http://www.futura-sciences.com/uploads/RTEmagicP_curiosity_detailDescente_mex_NAXA_txdam31215_386971.jpg and http://www.futura-sciences.com/fr/news/t/astronautique/d/curiosity-la-NAXA-et-lesa-preparent-larrivee-du-robot-sur-mars_40302/

Above is another fantastic suggestion how the Mars Science Laboratory spaceship landed on Mars during seven minutes (and 12 seconds) of terror.

Time of Event Occurrence at Mars (PDT) http://www.NAXA.gov/mission_pages/msl/news/edl20120809.html

[10:10:45.7 PM] Atmospheric Entry

[10:15:04.9 PM] Parachute Deploy (259.2 seconds later! at 11 000 meters altitude)

[10:15:24.6 PM] Heat Shield Separation (seen from the Rover - http://www.NAXA.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?collection_id=14661 + clicking)

[10:17:38.6 PM] Rover Separation (from Descent Stage) (2 minutes 14 seconds later)

[10:17:57.3 PM] Touchdown (18.7 seconds later) (Scrap around the Curiosity Rover - http://www.NAXA.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?collection_id=14661 + clicking)

Time Event Occurrence Received on Earth (PDT) i.e. 13 minutes and 48.5 seconds later:

[10:24:33.8 PM] Atmospheric Entry

[10:28:53.0 PM] Parachute Deploy

[10:29:12.7 PM] Heat Shield Separation

[10:31:26.7 PM] Rover Separation (from Descent Stage)

[10:31:45.4 PM] Touchdown

 

5.3 Let Mars atmosphere slow down the spaceship!

Here the MSL spaceship arrives into Mars carbon dioxide atmosphere at altitude 125 000 m at 5 900 m/s velocity at time 0 sec and doesn't brake at all and no parachute is deployed! JPL has no idea at what angle the spaceship must arrive at ... and how to adjust it. If the angle is 90°, the spaceship will hit ground after only 25 seconds or so or burn up before and that is not funny. No, the spaceship must arrive at a small angle, ~5°, and decelerate due friction, while Mars gravity pulls it down to ground. It is the very thin Mars atmosphere that manages to reduce the speed of the spaceship by friction (!) and when velocity is only 405 m/s 259.2 (or 454?) seconds later, the famous parachute is deployed at only 11 000 meter altitude.

In a later, fantastic, fantasy document (http://trs-new.jpl.NAXA.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/41629/1/10-1775.pdf) by Messrs. Adam D. Steltzner , P. Dan Burkhart, Allen Chen, Keith A. Comeaux, Carl S. Guernsey, Devin M. Kipp, Leila V. Lorenzoni, Gavin F. Mendeck*, Richard W. Powell**, Tommaso P. Rivellini, A. Miguel San Martin, Steven W. Sell, Ravi Prakash and David W. Way** of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, tel 818-393-6708, Ravi.Prakash@jpl.NAXA.gov , (*NAXA Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, TX, **NAXA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA) we are told that "The entry configuration is shown in Figure 3a, along with approximate directions of lift, drag, gravity, and velocity vectors. The spacecraft retains this configuration until the parachute descent phase, shown in Figure 3b". Figure 3a is right.


The speed is reduced from 5 900 to 405 m/s in only 259.2 seconds ... and only by friction and turbulence between spaceship's Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heat shield and the 125 000 meter or 125 km deep but very light Mars carbon dioxide atmosphere.

Of course the spaceship must have travelled a 817 128 meters trajectory or 817 km (and descending 114 km) then through the Mars atmosphere ... like a bullet ... during that time ... all predicted by the spaceship board computer and at JPL control center 14 light minutes away.

Note that the MSL spaceship stops much much quicker than Apollo 11, 1969, due friction in spite of Mars' atmosphere being much, much thinner than Earth's.

Isn't it strange? There are four basic physical models of a gas that are important to aeronautical engineers who design heat shields ... but none can be used to explain the MSL deceleration entering Mars' mostly carbon dioxide atmosphere.

Or from the JPL press kit pp 28.

"During EDL, more than nine-tenths of the deceleration before landing results from friction with the Mars atmosphere before the parachute opens. Peak heating occurs about 75 seconds after atmospheric entry, when the temperature at the external surface of the heat shield will reach about 3,800 degrees Fahrenheit (about 2,100 degrees Celsius). Peak deceleration occurs about 10 seconds later. Deceleration could reach 15 g, but a peak in the range of 10 g to 11 g is more likely."

The unit kinetic energy transformed into heat in 259.2 seconds is 17.32 MJ/kg and if the spaceship's heat shield is of concrete with C = 880 J/kgK, its temperature will rise by 19.685K. JPL thinks it only heats up 2 100C. Evidently it will burn up and disappear long before that or the brake forces rip apart the heat shield. But on film above it drops off undamaged at 10:29:12.7 PM or 13 minutes and 48.5 seconds earlier on Mars. Just behind the heat shield is the Rover! JPL suggests it is unaffected by the heat and forces of the heat shield.

Mean values of various parameters are as already stated above very useful to get a feel of what is supposed to have happened.

The mean deceleration during travel through Mars atmosphere until parachute deployment was 5 495/259.2 = 21.20 m/s² (every second the speed was reduced 21.20 m/s!) or 2.16 g and the mean drag force acting on the 3 690 kg MSL spaceship due friction was 78 227 N or about 8.0 ton (on Earth). Note that friction in the Mars atmosphere is much bigger than on Earth, when Apollo 11 came dropping down. Magic, isn't it? The Mars atmosphere is thinner than Earth's but applies more friction.


Such strong braking force due friction and turbulence in thin Mars atmosphere is not possible and a clear evidence of a hoax. Because you should really wonder why the parachute then was used on Mars? To reduce speed further from 405 to 80 m/s during 110 seconds? Mars atmosphere friction would do it much faster - actually in (405-80)/21.2 = 15.3 seconds just going the extra time and distance through the atmosphere! But the spaceship has burnt up long before. JPL thinks the parachute can only decelerate the spacecraft to 200 mph or ~80 m/s and then rockets are needed. So this happens:

 

5.4 The parachute ride

#1. The parachute was allegedly deployed at 11 000 m altitude 254 (or 259.2) seconds after entry into Mars atmosphere. spacecraft velocity was then 405 m/s (or 450?) at an unknown angle of inclination. There is no means to control the parachute. The spaceship just hangs on to it. It is filmed by a US sputnik that happens to pass in orbit around Mars.

#2. The heat shield was dropped off automatically at 8 000 m altitude 278 seconds after entry into Mars atmosphere, i.e. 24 seconds after parachute was deployed. The Rover is now exposed. Velocity was then 125 m/s. Average speed during these 24 seconds (events #1 and #2) was 265 m/s, average deceleration was 11.67 m/s² and total distance travelled 6 360 m. Vertical drop was about 3 000 m. Average vertical velocity was 3 000/24 = 125 m/s. Average inclination was about 28°. The 50 kg parachute was apparently subject to 43 000 N shock load after event #1 lasting 24 seconds.

#3. Back shell separation and end of parachute travel took place at 1 600 m altitude 364 seconds after entry into Mars atmosphere, i.e. 86 seconds after heat shield was dropped off. Velocity was then 80 m/s. Average speed during these 86 seconds (events #2 and #3) was 102.5 m/s, average deceleration was 0.52 m/s² and total distance travelled 8 815 m. Vertical drop was about 6 400 m. Average vertical velocity was 6 400/86 = 74 m/s. Average inclination was about 47°.

#1-#3 are just JPL science fiction fantasies.

 

 5.5 The Sky Crane

The last stage of the Rover trip to Mars was via a Sky Crane designed by a certain Marc Rober of Team-X. No details are really available about the magic Sky Crane from JPL management and NAXA because they are secret at the request of the Missile Defense Agency (!) of the US Department of Defense, who has "a substantial interest" in the NAXA records.

 

 5.6 Another simple analysis of the alleged NAXA/JPL Mars Rover landing

Below figure shows planet Mars with radius r = 3 386 km and its atmosphere with depth a = 125 km (not to scale or proportion). The Mars Science Lab spaceship was said to arrive at top of the Mars atmosphere at 5 900 m/s velocity and, if the approach angle is15.34°, the Mars horizon is d = 929 km straight away, because the Mars ground is curved (like Earth!). Can the MSL spaceship stop and land within that distance on the curved Mars?

With average speed 2 950 m/s during landing it takes 929 000/2950 = 315 seconds (6 minutes, 15 seconds) to displace 929 km on a straight line, but during that time Mars gravity will pull the MSL towards ground and you will apparently land or touch ground earlier following a curved trajectory.

The course will follow something like the green line, and the approach angle then was much less than 15.34°. It would appear safe to approach Mars at an intermediate approach angle - the red line - and decelerate slower in the Mars atmosphere - like Apollo 11 - but then you will land far beyond the horizon and no other NAXA/JPL satellite orbiting Mars can follow the show from above as happened with the MSL landing.

The MSL speed was reduced from 5 900 to 405 m/s in only 259.2 seconds in the Mars atmosphere due friction/turbulence we are told by JPL and then the green trajectory seems to have been used. The total distance passed should be of the order 817 km. Then most of the trajectory is in the very, very thin Mars atmosphere top layer that cannot possible reduce the speed of the MSL spaceship. NAXA/JPL staff suggest they, or the computers, can predict and calculate the curved trajectory from entry into the Mars atmosphere at 125 000 m altitude and landing on ground after 7 minutes of terror, i.e. by choosing the position of entry at 125 000 m altitude they can pinpoint the landing area ~800 000 m away, but there is no evidence for this suggestion.

Compare the Apollo 11 re-entry by NAXA 1969 that during 1 761 seconds Apollo 11 Control Module speed was reduced from 11 200 m/s to 50 m/s only due to turbulence and friction (!) in the Earth's atmosphere ... and then parachutes were opened. Apollo was decelerating for almost 10 000 km or 1/4 of Earth circumference ... and we know it was a hoax. The MSL stopped much, much faster in much, much thinner atmosphere, according to NAXA/JPL. But it is fantasy. It is impossible to land on any planet using the NAXA/JPL method.

I would therefore conclude that the NAXA/JPL story of the MSL landing is a hoax - like the Apollo 11 one 43 years earlier - and that the responsible NAXA/JPL people involved are simple crooks stealing money from the US tax payers (assisted by various other US agencies). I always invite the public to prove me wrong and earn 1 000 000:- at http://heiwaco.tripod.com/chall.htm. 

 

5.7 Instrumentation

More nonsense about the MSL can be found in:  

MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY ENTRY, DESCENT, AND LANDING TRAJECTORY AND ATMOSPHERE RECONSTRUCTION (http://ntrs.NAXA.gov/archive/NAXA/casi.ntrs.NAXA.gov/20130010087_2013009619.pdf) by Christopher D. Karlgaard, Prasad Kutty, Mark Schoenenberger and Jeremy Shidner

THE MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) ENTRY, DESCENT AND LANDING INSTRUMENTATION (MEDLI): HARDWARE PERFORMANCE AND DATA RECONSTRUCTION (http://ntrs.NAXA.gov/archive/NAXA/casi.ntrs.NAXA.gov/20130009743_2013009194.pdf) by lan Little, Deepak Bose, Chris Karlgaard, Michelle Munk, Chris Kuhl, Mark Schoenenberger, Chuck Antill, Ron Verhappen, and Prasad Kutty and Todd White 

Initial Assessment of Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Instrumentation and Flight Data (http://www.ssdl.gatech.edu/papers/conferencePapers/AIAA-2013-0908.pdf) by Deepak Bose, NAXA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Todd White, ERC, Inc., Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Jose A. Santos, Sierra Lobo, Inc., Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Jay Feldman, ERC, Inc., Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Milad Mahzari, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA and Michael Olson¹ and Bernie Laub², NAXA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA

It seems some fantastic sensors are fitted in the PICA heat shield to assist the fantasy landing. The sensors do not melt!

Camera used! (http://www.msss.com/all_projects/msl-mardi.php) It didn't melt either! 

 

 5.8 MSL Summary

Atmospheric friction deceleration on Mars was average 21.20 m/s² and could apparently reduce speed to 405 m/s according NAXA/JPL, when a parachute was required, which initially decelerated the spaceship at 11.67 m/s² to 125 m/s velocity, later becoming average only 0.52 m/s² deceleration and only 80 m/s final velocity at 1 600 m altitude but still too much to land according JPL.

At 1 600 m altitude apparently the parachute was suddenly no longer effective as speed was too high and rockets had to be used to bring velocity to 0 while flying around a little to avoid getting entangled in the parachute and for show - all automatically while the Rover filmed the decent into the Gale crater and added some video game instruments for JPL to enjoy 14 minutes later.

 

 5.9 Common sense overlooked ... as usual

It would evidently have been much better to use a little bigger parachute that decelerates the spaceship a little faster, so that absolute velocity had been say only 20 m/s in lieu of 80 m/s at 1 600 m altitude, so that, with final deceleration, say 0.125 m/s², you land at 0 speed 160 seconds later ... with the parachute. Or something like it. No need for rockets (!) that just complicate things. A well designed parachute should have done the job alone! But, sorry - the show must go on! Rockets add to the drama - that never took place.

It seems the JPL/NAXA SF writers lack imagination. They make believe that the very fast MSL spaceship managed to decelerate from 5 900 to 80 m/s velocity in 6 minutes 4 seconds first by very thin Mars atmosphere friction and a heat shield, never tested in any wind tunnel lab or anywhere, and then by a big parachute that had never been tested in so thin atmosphere and that it can be predicted and controlled by 500 000 lines of software and a board computer! JPL/NAXA failed to realize that they had to brake to 20 m/s in lieu of 80 m/s because then the parachute would also finish the job.

Sorry, it is physically impossible to stop a spaceship with speed 5 900 m/s as suggested. As impossible as a weak top of a tower crushes the stronger bottom by gravity.

The Mars spaceship + equipment burn up in the atmosphere after already 100-120 seconds due to friction regardless of entry angle. No heat shield can prevent it. So all footage of the MSL landing above and celebrations at JPL/Pasadena control center by clowns in blue T-shirts are just Hollywood propaganda ... as usual. And all pictures of Mars crater surface ... and old lake? ... sent later are fake, fake, fake. And the faking cannot stop! US tax payers pay. Soon there will be more fake pictures of Mars. I look forward to them. They will no doubt show traces of some sort of life on Mars 3 billion years ago. God also created life on Mars! Jesus! And towers that crushed themselves from top. What a joke! But US of A trust in God. Why not? If a country wants to waste its money, go ahead. 

On 28 September 2015 it was announced that the Mars rover had found water on Mars below the surface. That water had existed on the surface before had been confirmed before from photos showing dried out valleys were water had flown, etc, etc. There is no end to the inventions of the Mars space experts!

 

5.10 Another NAXA hoax October 2014 - Orion and its re-entry

The JPL clowns at Pasadena/California has produced a new spaceship Orion. It will fly much higher in space than the International Fake Station for a quick trip - purpose unknown - and then return to Earth at 8.900 m/s (20.000 mph) velocity at 120.000 m (75 miles) altitude for a quick re-entry using air friction/turbulence to slow down - like the Soyuz capsule - and splash down in the Pacific like Apollo 11+.

But Kelly Smith of NAXA is just a low paid Hollywood actor I am happy to reveal - if he exists at all? He looks like a computer animation or robot. Great fun though!

Orion re-entry - air friction/turbulence only slows down the space craft from 8 900 to 100 m/s speed, while heat shield temperature increases >2 600C

The Orion has an about five meters diameter rounded heat shield of thin titanium plate on which 25-50 mm high fiberglass honeycomb matrixes are fitted. An epoxy novolac resin with special additives - AVCOAT - is then injected into each honeycomb space. Total volume of AVCOAT is less than one cubic meter that would evaporate or burn off quite easily. The development of the heat shield started already 2006:

"We don't know what the final (advanced heat shield) material will be until the testing and analysis is complete," said George Sarver, manager of Ames' Orion/ Ares Support Project. According to Sarver, NAXA must complete the advanced heat shield development work by 2009 in order to be ready for Orion's first flight that possibly could be in 2012, but no later than 2014.

Source

How this flimsy 'shield' can absorb the >2 600C friction heat generated at re-entry without melting, catching fire and burning up is a mystery 2017. The 'shield' can easily be laboratory tested on Earth to simulate its function at 8 900 m/s speed in thin air. It melts and catches fire! It appears that Apollo 11 had a similar heat shield. And all US ICBMs carrying nuclear bombs to destroy Russia!


 

5.11 The latest NAXA hoax September 2016 - the HI-SEAS Program 2012-2016

NAXA has since 2012 awarded millions of $$ to the Hawai'I Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) program to allegedly study the human factors that contribute to astronaut crew function and performance during long-duration space travels, such as those anticipated for a manned mission to Mars.

That NAXA and the HI-SEAS' directors cannot describe such a space travel trip is conveniently forgotten, incl. time to go to Mars - 8 months (?), time to wait on Mars for going back - 24 months (?), and time to return - 8 months (?).

If a manned mission to Mars takes 40 months (!), we talk about locking up human beings inside a spacecraft and/or habitat for 40 months never breathing fresh air, never going to the beach swimming or to the mountains skiing during vaccations or having a BBQ in the garden meeting normal people, and so on, during that time.

The University of Hawaii at Manoa leads this pseudoscientific study, with support from team members at Cornell University, Michigan State University, Arizona State University, University of South Florida, the University of Maryland, the Institutes for Behavior Resources, Smart Information Flow Technologies, Blue Planet Foundation, and from the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES), we are told. It sounds solid. Imagine so many academic institutions involved. Then it cannot be a hoax, we are supposed to believe.

The idea is to lock up human beings inside a little habitat and study how they behave. The participants are told that they are part of teams - crews - going to planet Mars. The first mission was 2012 and lasted four months. Then there have been another four months mission 2014, an eight months mission 2014/5 and recently a 12 months mission terminated August 2016 with a Frenchman as part of the crew. Media assist to make PR for the missions, as if human space travel to Mars is really possible.

Crew members are between 21 and 65 years of age. They aree tobacco-free and are able to pass a Class 2 flight physical examination, and able to understand, speak and write fluently in English. They meet the basic requirements of the NAXA astronaut program (i.e. an undergraduate degree in a pseudoscience or engineering discipline, three years of experience or graduate study, etc.); in addition, they have been evaluated for experience considered valuable in the program, such as experience in complex operational environments, doing nothing, bla, bla. They must also believe in human space travel even if there is nothing in vacuum space to enjoy.

A team of approximately 40 volunteers from around the world serves as HI-SEAS Mission Support, interacting with the locked up crew through an imposed one-way 20-minute communications latency to provide Mars-like mission constraints. Mission Support volunteers keep the mission running smoothly at little cost.

First Tier Support - FTS is comprised of 20 volunteers located in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Europe. Most are experienced mission support team members from other Mars analog or actual space missions. As the primary interface with the crew for routine communications during three daily 4-hour shift periods from 8am-8pm Hawaii Standard Time, FTS acknowledges emails in a timely fashion (within 30 minutes), reviews EVA plans, reads and files the crew's daily reports, and asks follow-up questions as needed. FTS will notify Second Tier Support (STS) of any logistical requirements or other matters mattes requiring decision-making authority such as resupplies or repairs.

Second Tier Support - STS is comprised of 7 principal investigators, co-investigators, and collaborators on the HI-SEAS research program who are located in the U.S. and New Zealand. They are very familiar with all aspects of the study, including research procedures, permitting restrictions, safety procedures, budgets, contracts, and other constraints. As such, STS has considerable decision-making authority regarding the mission and must be consulted for any non-routine issues. STS members are on call 24 hours per day, 7 days per week and will acknowledge emails within 2 hours.

Medical Support - MS consists of an emergency medicine physician and a psychologist, with backup physicians and EMT responders located in Hilo, Hawaii. MS is available on call 24 hours per day, 7 days per week and will respond to emergencies immediately, as well as read and respond to all crew medical reports and queries.

Engineering Support - ES, also known as the Systems Group, is a group of 9 technical experts who helped design and construct the habitat. They are available to troubleshoot any problems that arise with the sensor, network, power, water, and other systems at the habitat. They coordinate the logistics of resupply and waste removal. The group also includes Chief Engineers from previous HI-SEAS crews who provide important perspective on the day-to-day operational aspects of maintaining the habitat.

Etc, etc. Plenty of people are thus involved in the show. Asking any participant if it is really possible to fly to Mars is met by incomprehension. 'But of course it is possible', they say. 'And there is so much to experience during the trip!' They thus suffer from cognitive dissonance of serious dimensions apart from having been locked up and isolated from real people. They do not realize they particpate in the latest NAXA hoax.

There is a fantastic, pseudoscientific project team looking after the HI-SEAS show: 

Project Manager Bryan Caldwell is currently funded by NAXA Behavioral Health and Performance as Co-Investigator to study "Mission Operational Autonomy: crew and mission support interaction in autonomous exploration of distant space and planetary surfaces". Based in Galveston, TX, Bryan divides his time between Hawaii and Auckland, NZ, where he has a part time appointment as Research Fellow for Auckland Bioengineering Institute. Bryan doesn't get tired flying around so much ... on Earth.

Principal Investigator Dr. Jean Hunter is Associate Professor in the Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering at Cornell University. Her research focuses on space life support including design of food systems for planetary missions, water processing, and management of solid wastes. It means she cleans the only toilet of the habitat.

Research Collaborator Brian Shiro was a highly qualified NAXA astronaut applicant in 2008 and 2012, placing him within the top 10% of applicants never being sent into space. Shiro holds a B.A. (2000) with majors in Integrated Science, Geology, and Physics from Northwestern University, a M.A. (2002) in Earth and Planetary Sciences from Washington University in St. Louis, and a M.S. (2010) in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota. He is also a graduate of the International Space University's Space Studies Program (2005), which led to his giving an invited presentation on wildfire forecasting using space technologies to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 2006. With so many degrees the failed astronut couldn't find any real job.

Dr. Kim Binsted is the principal investigator of the NAXA-funded HI-SEAS project. However she is currently on sabbatical in Russia on a Fulbright award and is not really following the HI-SEAS project.

Simon Engler is the research assistant for HI-SEAS and a PhD student in Computer Science at the University of Hawaii on Manoa Campus. Simon was the Crew Engineer for HI-SEAS Mission 1 and was locked up four months inside the HI-SEAS dome 2012. He conducts research in robotics, human-robot interaction, and is currently designing mathematical models predicting energy consumption in the habitat. Simon obtained his BSc in Astrophysics & Mathematics in 2001 from St. Mary's University. Simon believes that human space travel is very easy but has failed my 1M Challenge how to get to Mars and has thus not collected my 1M. Simon is very upset about it. He suffers from cognitive dissonance.

Imagine being locked up into the habitat for 12 months being looked after by above clowns. Cyprien Verseux, 26, was one such French volonteer of the last team released 26 August 2016 after 12 months in the habitat. To survive and not going mad he locked himself up in the food storage room and learnt himself playing the ukulélé. But he will volonteer for a real trip to Mars in the future. He also suffers from cognitive dissonance.

 

 

6. Summary of three US and one Russian spaceship re-entries:

spaceship

Apollo 11 CM

Shuttle

Soyuz capsule 2012

MSL

and their particulars

re-entry mass (kg)

5 557

78 000

3 000 (assumed)

3 690

m

re-entry speed (m/s)

11 200

9 000

7 850

5 900

v1

Entering planet

Earth

Earth

Earth

Mars

x

Unit kinetic energy (MJ/kg)

63

41

30.8

17

(v1)²/2

Total kinetic energy (GJ) to absorb braking

349

3 159

93

64

m(v1)²/2

Unit temperature rise with C = 880 J/kgC (concrete) (C)

71 273

46 023

34 500

19 778

(v1)²/1760

Re-entry altitude (m)

130 000

130 000

121 920

125 000

x

Re-entry location B - latitude/longitude

N.A.

N.A

N.A

N.A

°ms/°ms

Speed parachute deploy (m/s)

100

150

<100

405

v2

Altitude parachute deploy (m)

21 000

0

10 000 (assumed)

11 000

x

Time in seconds between atmosphere re-entry at location B/parachute deploy (s)

1 080 (540 according other sources)

~1 800

480

259.2

t

Average kinetic energy loss due friction/turbulence every second (MJ/s)

322.7

1 755

~190

247

m((v1)²-( v2)²)/2t

Distance travelled in re-entry (m)

6 291 000

8 100 000

1 908 000

817 128

t(v1+ v2)/2

Mean deceleration in re-entry (m/s²)

10.3

5.0

16.15

21.2

(v1- v2)/t

Mean brake force in re-entry due friction/turbulence (N)

57 114

390 000

~48 000

78 228

m(v1- v2)/t

Gravity at planet ground, g (m/s²)

9.82

9.82

9.82

3.71

x

Planet atmosphere density at ground (kg/m3)

1.20

1.20

1.20

0.02

x

Planet atmosphere pressure at ground (hPa)

1 000

1 000

1 000

6-10

x

Heat shield diameter (m)

3.9

N.A.

?

4.5

xx

Heat shield mass (kg)

848

N.A.

?

? (secret ?)

SA

The Shuttle is the heaviest spaceship - 78 000 kg - managing a re-entry. Apollo 11 had the highest re-entry speed - 11.200 m/s and therefore most kinetic energy (MJ) per mass (kg) - 62.72, but the Shuttle's total kinetic energy to transform into friction heat is the biggest - 3.159 (GJ). Those energies would increase the temperature of any spaceship and the surroundings >19.000C due friction and turbulence! Manned Apollo 11 and Shuttle do a re-entry in about 30 minutes with a mean deceleration of 0.64-0.51g and distances travelled in atmosphere are very long 8.000 - 10.000 km (1/4 of the Earth's circumference), while the unmanned MSL does a total re-entry at Mars in 'seven minutes of terror' at mean deceleration 2.15g and travelling only 817 km, which is quite long too.

Apollo 11 and MSL use a heat shield to absorb the kinetic energy as friction of the order 200-250 MJ/s or less (depending on the turbulence), while Shuttle is doing acrobatic flying causing turbulence to absorb 1 755 MJ/s energy. Little footage exists from the cockpit of a Shuttle during manual (!) re-entry maneuvering (how can you film with deceleration 0.5g during 30 minutes with all crew strapped to their seats and the pilot trying to fly the Shuttle?). Existing footage seems a joke.

The Shuttle was subject to a mean brake force (due friction and turbulence) of 390 000 N during re-entry or more than 10 times Apollo 11. The MSL mean brake force at Mars was 78.228 N or more than double Apollo 11 and you wonder how it is possible in the thin Mars atmosphere. Can a heat shield produce such big brake forces? It seems NAXA/JPL cannot provide any scientific evidence for it.

The Mars' atmosphere is 100 times less dense than Earth's with a ground pressure 60 times lower, but Mars' atmosphere seems to be able to slow down re-entry for MSL twice quicker than for Apollo 11. NAXA/JPL cannot provide any scientific evidence for it.

I have a distinct feeling that all types of known US spaceship re-entry to any planet are hoaxes. The US spaceships would just burn up or break up like a meteorite. Prove me wrong and earn 1 000 000:-. Actually the whole human space travel program promoted by USA/NAXA 1959-2017 is a simple, stupid hoax. Only question is how long it will last!

Visit also the funny first page and the hilarious second about other space hoaxes!

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