The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The main purpose of it - I call it NASA below - is to invent pure lies about US space programs and aeronautics and aerospace research.
Welcome to the second part of my space travel hoaxes article about the space fantasies of the Nationax Aeronautix and Xpace Administratiox. Here I analyze the NASA Apollo 11 manned spacecraft 1969 fantasy trip to the Moon.
Manned space trips differ from simple one-way satellite launches into orbits that, apart from just speeding up, you also turn, brake, dock, land and re-start in space and re-enter on Earth that apparently were very easy 1969! Every step of a manned trip should be pre-programmed and checked several times beforehand and should be executed at exact times, locations, speeds in space, etc. No errors can be allowed. So it should be very easy to verify any trip - study the plan made beforehand and how it was executed. However - it is impossible to do. NASA has produced so many reports with different numbers of speeds, locations and fuel consumption of e.g. Apollo 11, so it is impossible to verify anything. Reason? It was all invented fiction from the beginning.
NASA cannot since 1969 really explain how their heros went to the toilet in Apollo 11! When in space or in orbit the astronuts are floating around inside the spacecraft. They are weightless. When they have to shit or piss, they act like rockets ... inside the spacecraft! The piss/shit is ejected one way and the astronut moves the other way. They have to hold on to something ... and the shit/piss must end up in some container or similar. How do you do it? In your space suit? When holding on to something? NASA have no ideas how it was done on Apollo 11, unless you believe this piss and this shit. Main Stream Media have never investigated the matter. Since 50+ years! Here it is:
According the US National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 you should know:
ACCESS TO INFORMATION
Don't ask me what above means. Just to make things clear from the beginning.
I am convinced that the POTUS already 1958 ordered the falsifications of future manned space trips and that the fakery should be kept secret forever by a secret Executive order or similar to this effect backed up by laws like above to prevent any whistle blowers to tell the truth as described below ... after having seen this Soviet 1957 movie. Actually NASA copy/pasted most of the Russian fantasies 100%.
Here and below I just describe how human space travel Apollo 11 style is not possible. You cannot carry the fuel with you to produce the rocket engine forces in space at correct directions and times! You do not have the control and navigation system to apply the forces at the right locations, times, directions, durations and amplitudes during the high speed trajectory. You are moving too fast and you do not know where you are. These facts apparently affect US national security, which is why it has been withheld and you have to read about it here.
Already 1966 NASA spent
4.5% (!) of the total US federal budget to
fake the Apollo human Moon trip
program. The US
Spaceflight Plans Committee
2009 has described
the hoax. People wonder how much fuel
a manned spacecraft requires to fly to
the Moon, land on the Moon, take off again from the
Moon and return to planet Earth. These people
assume it is possible for humans to fly to the Moon
and then return to planet Earth. So I have to
repeat: Human space travel
is not possible. It is only possible to send
satellites one-way orbiting Earth. According NASA
a human space trip - Apollo 11 - took
place 1969. Apollo 11 or rather a
Saturn V rocket consumed 3 346
tons fuel just to get off the Earth ground and
into high speed/low altitude parking orbit
around Earth, from where it would continue to the
Moon by firing another rocket engine at the right
Already 1966 NASA spent 4.5% (!) of the total US federal budget to fake the Apollo human Moon trip program.
The US Human Spaceflight Plans Committee 2009 has described the hoax.
People wonder how much fuel a manned spacecraft requires to fly to the Moon, land on the Moon, take off again from the Moon and return to planet Earth. These people assume it is possible for humans to fly to the Moon and then return to planet Earth. So I have to repeat: Human space travel is not possible. It is only possible to send satellites one-way orbiting Earth.
According NASA a human space trip - Apollo 11 - took place 1969.
Apollo 11 or rather a Saturn V rocket consumed 3 346 tons fuel just to get off the Earth ground and into high speed/low altitude parking orbit around Earth, from where it would continue to the Moon by firing another rocket engine at the right moment.
The Germans? Ja, 2017! Der APOLLO-11-Elefant - eine deutsche Premiere.
Say that Apollo 11 then had 7.500 m/s tangential velocity in orbit around Earth. The change of direction was about 4°/minute.
Another 285 tons of fuel was then used to get away from the high speed/altitude parking orbit around Earth, EPO, at the right moment/time/location/duration/direction and off to the Moon via a location X in space, where Earth and Moon gravity forces are equal - 0.0035 m/s². How you get 285 tons of fuel into orbit is not possible. The rocket could only lift 130 tons into orbit!
The 285 tons of fuel was used to provide a force that accelerated the spacecraft from 7.500 m/s tangential velocity in orbit to a certain departure velocity in the right direction (you must change it from 4°/minute to zero) to get away from orbit - 11 200 m/s - to arrive at location X in space with sufficient speed - say only 790 m/s - which will then increase again when dropping down on the Moon. If your final start speed is too low, you will never reach location X but stop and drop back on Earth. If it is too high, you will arrive at location X too early and probably miss the Moon.
Imagine that! 285 tons of fuel was used to get Apollo 11 out of orbit into a new trajectory ... to the Moon ... via location X. We do not know if the force was applied in the right direction ... at the right location ... at the right time. NASA refuses to provide any details.
That trajectory is not straight! No ...
Earth gravity slowed down the spacecraft from 11 200 m/s to 790 m/s and changed its direction of travel all the way to location X and then Moon gravity increased the spacecraft velocity again and changed the direction.
If you had too low departure speed, say only 10.500 m/s, you would never reach location X but drop back on Earth and crash. It is extremely difficult to calculate the location and arrival time at location X. If you miss location X, you really have a problem.
After passing location X the velocity increased again and the direction changed towards the centre of gravity of the Moon orbiting Earth in front of you at tangential speed about 1.000 m/s and change of direction 360° every four weeks or 28 days!
NASA has not been able to describe the Apollo 11 trajectory 1969 out of orbit to location X and on to the Moon.
Reason is that it is impossible rocket science.
The main reason why you cannot fly to the Moon (or Mars) is that you cannot get enough fuel with you up in orbit later to get away from the orbit and reach the target, be it Moon or Mars.
About another 30 tons of fuel was then used to brake or slow down the Apollo 11 spacecraft into high speed/altitude orbit around the Moon from which another spacecraft (the Lunar Module) was used to put two men on the Moon and later back in orbit around the Moon and finally out of orbit in direction to location X (you have to speed up) to get back to Earth. When you reach location X on the return, no more fuel is required. You will just go faster and faster until dropping vertically down on Earth at about 11 200 m/s speed.
But watch it. You must arrive at
location B 120 000 m above above the
rotating Earth at exactly the
right time, speed
m/s) and direction (~3° down -
almost horizontally - and towards the waiting boats
with the POTUS in the water) to start the
re-entry. If you miss location B, you
will drop down somewhere else 10 minutes later and
not be found by assisting ships and helicopters.
Actually to return from the Moon
surface and back to Earth less than 7 tons
of fuel was used. But it had been carried all the
way from Earth as there are no gas stations on the
Moon to fill up. All this fuel became 3
661 tons of exhaust gases - most of it ejected
into the Earth's atmosphere - as water
steam. Plenty people on the ground
(left) assisted the Apollo 11 crew not to
run out of fuel during the trip. You should really
wonder what each of them did. NASA suggests that there
will be a permanent base with humans on the Moon by
But watch it. You must arrive at location B 120 000 m above above the rotating Earth at exactly the right time, speed (11.200 m/s) and direction (~3° down - almost horizontally - and towards the waiting boats with the POTUS in the water) to start the re-entry. If you miss location B, you will drop down somewhere else 10 minutes later and not be found by assisting ships and helicopters.
Actually to return from the Moon surface and back to Earth less than 7 tons of fuel was used. But it had been carried all the way from Earth as there are no gas stations on the Moon to fill up.
All this fuel became 3 661 tons of exhaust gases - most of it ejected into the Earth's atmosphere - as water steam.
Plenty people on the ground (left) assisted the Apollo 11 crew not to run out of fuel during the trip. You should really wonder what each of them did.
NASA suggests that there will be a permanent base with humans on the Moon by 2037.
It is all propaganda of course to keep the Apollo 11 myth alive. No Americans or humans have ever been on or will ever be on the Moon.
Fake photos are part of standard propaganda! There are many photos taken by the asstronuts when they were outside the spacecraft, EVA, and available at NASA web sites. Here is an actual count of EVA photos of the six missions:
Apollo 11.. 121, Apollo 12.. 504, Apollo 14.. 374, Apollo 15.. 1021, Apollo 16.. 1765, Apollo 17.. 1986 !
So 12 astronauts while on the Moon's surface took a TOTAL of 5771 exposures using standard, silver colored Hasselblad cameras not adapted for space. It would appear that all photos were taken in studios on Earth. Why is that?
There is no atmosphere on the Moon to diffuse the light and heat. Everything directly exposed to the Sun light from above or from the side including cameras should be clearly lit and heated up to say 150C during 12-14 days of exposure. And everything not directly exposed to the Sun - in the shade - should be pitch black = no light, no heat. All photos should be brightly lit with pitch black shady areas. But they aren't. You get the impression that all Moon photos are lit by ... spotlights ... in an atmosphere.
Light on Earth is diffused by the atmosphere making any shades gray and also diverting heat energy while passing the atmosphere! You may suggest that the light is reflected on the Moon. It is ... back to Earth, so you can see the Moon. You may wonder what color is the Moon? Probably ash gray ... but nobody knows.
I pay since September 2012 anyone €1.000.000:- that can describe, without any photos, a manned space trip à la Apollo 11 but no one has managed my Challenge. It seems the experts cannot handle the fact Earth's gravity acceleration (m/s²) is reduced as a function of the altitude or distance from Earth. If the gravity acceleration is 9.8 m/s² on Earth, it is only about 0.0035 m/s² or about 3 000 times smaller at location X about 345 000 kilometers from Earth, etc, etc.
My really funny article about the Apollo 11 human space trip hoax 1969 and fuel consumed is in 16 chapters for easy reference:
2.1 How much fuel (energy) is required to get to the Moon and back after having left Earth and how much did it cost 1969?
If you find anything wrong, please tell me at firstname.lastname@example.org and I will correct it.
2.1 How much fuel (energy) is required to get to the Moon and back after having left Earth and how much did it cost 1969?
According http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnv.htm the Saturn V rocket (out of production since 1973) that carried humans to the Moon had three stages + the Apollo 11 spacecraft with humans on top.
Stage 1 had gross mass 2 286 217 kg and empty mass 135 218 kg and therefore a fuel mass 2 150 999 kg.
Stage 2 had gross mass 490 778 kg and empty mass 39 048 kg and therefore a fuel mass 451 730 kg.
Stage 3 had gross mass 119 900 kg and empty mass 13 300 kg and therefore a fuel mass 106 600 kg.
Adding up the above you get total 2 896 895 kg gross rocket mass with 2 709 329 kg fuel mass or about 2 709 tons of fuel of which 2 603 tons were burnt in stages 1 and 2. Thus the fuel was 93.53% of the total rocket. Imagine that. On top of it there was this 43 802 kg three-part spacecraft with more fuel and three humans - Apollo 11 - described below.
As already said above according NASA Apollo 11 or rather a Saturn V rocket consumed 3 346 tons fuel just to get off the Earth ground.
The rocket was built at the Michoud Assembly Facility and tested at the John C. Stennis Space Center. The installations were and are parts of the hoax creating employment for poor people and making local business people rich so that everybody shuts up.
Or with other words (using the smaller figures):
Stage 1 used 2 151 tons of fuel to lift 654 tons of stages 2 and 3 and Apollo 11 to a certain altitude and speed - location Z, while 135.tons of scrap dropped back down on Earth or was vaporized.
Then stage 2 used 452 tons of fuel to further lift 203 tons of stage 3, Apollo 11 and empty stage 2 into orbit at a certain altitude and speed probably around 7 500 m/s - orbit Y. The empty 39 tons stage 2 then dropped off somewhere in orbit and may still orbit Earth today or burnt up at re-entry.
And finally, at a given time and exact position Y1 in orbit Y, stage 3 uses 107 tons kg of fuel to accelerate 57 tons of Apollo 11 to a very high speed probably around 11 200 m/s and empty stage 3 away from Earth towards a location X in space, where then Moon gravity pulled it (and the empty stage) towards the target.
According NASA (http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/saturn_apollo/documents/First_Stage.pdf) stage 1 had gross mass 2 214 022 kg and empty mass 137 441 kg and therefore a fuel mass 2.076.581 kg or about only 635.040 kg RP-1 and 1.441.541 kg LOX or 74.418 kg less fuel than announced above. But who cares about 3.5% less fuel?
According NASA (http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/saturn_apollo/documents/Second_Stage.pdf) stage 2 had only 69.400 kg LH2 and 357.890 kg LOX or total 427.290 kg fuel or 24.440 kg less fuel than announced above. But who cares about 5.4% less fuel?
According NASA (http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/saturn_apollo/documents/Third_Stage.pdf) stage 3 had only 18.031 kg LH2 and 87.205 kg LOX or total 105.236 kg fuel or 1.364 kg less fuel than announced above. But who cares about 1.3% less fuel? With an empty mass 13 300 kg the total mass of the third stage was 118 536 (or 119 900) kg.
The Apollo 11 spacecraft had mass 43 802 kg. So the third stage and the spacecraft had mass 162 338 kg! Such a big mass has never been orbiting Earth ever. How could the 1st and 2nd stage get it off the ground?
The total difference in fuel available/used by different sources is 100 222 kg or more than 100 tons!
The below presentation is generally compiled using info from the following internet sources of NASA about the Apollo 11 Earth/Moon/Earth 1969 trip, where there are different masses of all kind:
 SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE FLIGHT EVALUATION REPORT-AS-.506 APOLLO 11 MISSION (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19900066485_1990066485.pdf) with completely other fuel figures - 3 346 tons - and not signed by anybody and probably written by some free-lance science fiction writer 1969 and - no longer available after I made the link.
The server is unavailable:
"The NASA technical reports server will be unavailable for public access while the agency conducts a review of the site's content to ensure that it does not contain technical information that is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations and that the appropriate reviews were performed. The site will return to service when the review is complete. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause."
Later the 284 pages (some upside down) document has re-appeared (!) at https://archive.org/details/nasa_techdoc_19900066485. If it is the same document I cannot guarantee.
The NASA info 1969 is evidently wrong, false or incomplete or under review 2015, e.g. masses of modules and fuel differ from source to source, fuel consumption for various events are unclear and the velocity to orbit the Moon, 3 000 m/s according NASA, cannot be correct and a good reason that a manned Moon/Earth space trip never took place 1969, etc, etc.
Wikipedia also uses above references to compile a description of the science fiction trip but evidently forgets to mention that you need fuel for it ... and that the spacecraft could not carry the required fuel.
This presentation is mainly about i) the energy used to change velocity or momentum up or down during the trip, and ii) how much fuel is used for each change, and iii) if it can be carried along. It seems you are too heavy to get off the ground at start and then you lack knowledge how to get from waypoint to waypoint applying new forces in the right directions at the right locations/times/durations during the voyage. The end is that you drop from the Moon, location A, onto the centre of Earth without fuel but misses ... so you arrive parallel with the upper atmosphere at location B to perform an impossible re-entry.
The 1969 fantasy trip looked like:
It was done 48 years ago and many people still believe it really happened because they are told so from above. The picture above is of course misleading. Earth and Moon are much smaller and the distance in between is much, much longer. To avoid hitting Earth Bull eye and arriving a little off, e.g. at 120 000 m altitude on top of the atmosphere, the angle of approach differs minimally. You know it yourself. You can see the Moon from Earth any time, when it is in sight. It is in sight <50% of the time. Rest of the time it is out of sight. And what you see is not big. And it moves. Like you. Earth rotates and if you are in high speed orbit around Earth you really must concentrate to fire your rocket engine at the right time/location/direction to get off to location X outside the Moon. Space 3D travel is not easy.
To minimize fuel/energy
consumption and maximize safety and to impress the
public NASA used a three spacecrafts
system; a Service Module, SM, a Command
Module, CM, and a Lunar Module, LM. It
looked very professional. The three spacecrafts or modules
and a launch rocket third stage, S.IVB, were
therefore launched into an Earth Parking
Orbit, EPO, by one powerful three stages
Saturn V rocket (that we have not
seen since 1973) and then, at the
right time and location in EPO, they were
launched, at high initial speed, out of the
orbit towards the Moon by the third
stage rocket, S/IV.B, (right) at even
higher speed. Such a great mass of spacecrafts
and (third stage) launch
rocket has never been seen in orbit since.
How it could be launched at the right location,
time, duration and direction towards the Moon is a
mystery. The steering fins are useless! There is no
air in EPO and space! Note that the
Module is stored
below the Service Module rocket engine
exhaust nozzle at departure and in EPO.
After trans-lunar injection (left), the 3rd
stage rocket, S.IVB, and the LM are
being disconnected from the Service/Command
Module, the Service/Command
Module flips 180° and the Lunar
Module is connected to the top of the
Command Module. The 3rd stage rocket,
S.IVB, is then disconnected from the
CSM/LM. Later you can open the hatch between
the CM and the LM.
To minimize fuel/energy consumption and maximize safety and to impress the public NASA used a three spacecrafts system; a Service Module, SM, a Command Module, CM, and a Lunar Module, LM. It looked very professional.
The three spacecrafts or modules and a launch rocket third stage, S.IVB, were therefore launched into an Earth Parking Orbit, EPO, by one powerful three stages Saturn V rocket (that we have not seen since 1973) and then, at the right time and location in EPO, they were launched, at high initial speed, out of the orbit towards the Moon by the third stage rocket, S/IV.B, (right) at even higher speed.
Such a great mass of spacecrafts and (third stage) launch rocket has never been seen in orbit since. How it could be launched at the right location, time, duration and direction towards the Moon is a mystery. The steering fins are useless! There is no air in EPO and space!
Note that the Lunar Module is stored below the Service Module rocket engine exhaust nozzle at departure and in EPO. After trans-lunar injection (left), the 3rd stage rocket, S.IVB, and the LM are being disconnected from the Service/Command Module, the Service/Command Module flips 180° and the Lunar Module is connected to the top of the Command Module. The 3rd stage rocket, S.IVB, is then disconnected from the CSM/LM. Later you can open the hatch between the CM and the LM.
NASA suggests the trajectory of the Apollo 11 trip to Moon was like an elliptical orbit.
The terms for perihelion and aphelion for any orbit, e.g. one around Earth by a spacecraft, are periapsis or pericenter and apoapsis or apocenter.
Question remains how to put a spacecraft like Apollo 11 in an elliptical orbit around Earth with a period of say 6 days with its apoapsis or apocenter close to the Moon 384 400 km away. The periapsis or pericenter is of course Earth at 300 km away. If you just go away from Earth at lower start speed, your actual speed will be reduced until it is 0 and you start to drop back.
If Apollo 11 travelled like a comet around Earth and didn't stop at the Moon, it would return every 6 days to the periapsis or pericenter at high speed and then back to the apoapsis or apocenter, where the speed was minimal ... unless it would crash on Earth.
During the trip to the Moon the velocity away from Earth of the Apollo 11 spacecraft was reduced >90% and the direction changed, as Earth's gravity force pulled the three CSLM spacecrafts back but after about 90% of the trajectory - at the Lagrangian point X - Moon gravity was stronger and the three spacecrafts were pulled towards the centre of the Moon at >200% increased velocity. The empty third stage launch rocket had been dropped off and missed the Moon.
Earth's gravity acceleration (m/s²) is reduced as a function of the altitude or distance from Earth. If the gravity acceleration is 9.8 m/s² on Earth, it is only about 0.0035 m/s² or about 3 000 times smaller at location X about 345 000 kilometers from Earth. Thus Moon or Earth gravity force is extremely small, where Apollo CSLM starts to deviate towards the Moon.
Below it is shown how it is not possible to reach location X with fuel reportedly used.
One way or other the three CSLM spacecrafts then arrived more or less horizontally above the Moon at 115.000 m altitude (!) - the spacecrafts didn't miss the Moon completely or crashed vertically or was gravity kicked away - and an SM rocket engine was fired to reduce the speed and change the direction a lot, so they, the three spacecrafts, dropped (!) into stable orbit around the Moon at reduced speed but in the right direction. So far so good. Do you enjoy it? Isn't it a joke?
After some Moon orbits the lightest module, the Lunar Module, LM, disconnected from the Command Module and landed on the Moon and part of it took off again later, to re-connect with the others. In the meantime the two others, the Command Module, CM, and Service Module, SM, stayed in Moon orbit. On return in Moon orbit and re-connection, the LM was dropped off in Moon orbit, where it still is today. Plenty work, don't you agree?
Finally the SM rocket engine was fired again and the two spacecrafts, SM and CM, were launched out of Moon orbit at a location A in direction back towards location X and from there to planet Earth at increased speed. NASA has not been able to explain how the asstronuts managed to find location A at the right time and fired the rocket engine in the right direction towards location X, but some way it was done and off they went.
The spacecraft changed direction at location X - the Lagrangian point - on the way back towards Earth due to strong Earth gravity and the speed increased >10 times. The CM finally arrived Earth upper atmosphere at location B in almost horizontal (!) direction (to plunge into the atmosphere for re-entry) at an exact time later. Not too early, not too late.
To get out of Moon orbit a big rocket force was applied at a precise location A, time, duration, direction and initial departure speed and then they were on their way home but Moon gravity pulled them back, so the velocity was reduced >70% and direction changed. The Moon orbits the Earth all the time. It takes 27.322 days.
After a while, however, Earth gravity attracted the CSM spacecraft at location X and the direction now changed towards the centre of Earth, while velocity increased >10 times.
As already stated above the Moon's (or Earth) gravity acceleration (m/s²) is reduced as a function of the altitude or distance from the Moon (or Earth). If the gravity acceleration is 1.6 m/s on the Moon, it is only about 0.0035 m/s² or about 500 times smaller at location X about 34 500 kilometers from the Moon. Thus Moon or Earth gravity force is extremely small, where Apollo CSM starts to deviate back towards Earth.
Many interested parties wonder how it actually took place. It was simple.
The trajectory AX was governed by initial speed/direction at location A and by Moon gravity (pulling Apollo 11 SM and CM back to the Moon) getting weaker all the time, while the trajectory XB was governed by speed/direction at X and by Earth gravity (pulling Apollo 11 SM and CM forward to Earth) getting stronger all the time.
In order to calculate the complete trajectory AXB NASA evidently had calculated the location of X and the time passing X and the speed and direction at X. However, there is no trace of X in any NASA documentation of the trip.
I have not managed to redo the trajectory AXB in my simulations. My spacecraft always arrives almost vertically at B (Earth upper atmosphere) and crashes after 10 seconds. Or it misses Earth all together going too high. A gravity kick never takes place!
Before re-entry into the atmosphere and landing on Earth, the SM was dropped off.
Only the CM arrived almost horizontally at the upper Earth atmosphere at about 120.000 m altitude - location B - and plunged into the atmosphere, deployed parachutes after 565 seconds and landed a little later on Earth (or actually in the Pacific). The CM did not miss Earth all together or did not arrive vertically and crash after 10 seconds. No, the CM arrived exactly at location B at exactly the right time and direction. However NASA has not been able to say where location B was and how the asstronots found it in the first place arriving there at >11 000 m/s speed and unknown direction.
friction and lift (!) can develop in such thin
air remain a mystery unless, of course, the
whole thing is a fraud (which it is in my honest
opinion). I describe it in more detail
How friction and lift (!) can develop in such thin air remain a mystery unless, of course, the whole thing is a fraud (which it is in my honest opinion). I describe it in more detail below.
With more places to pause during a mission, there was more leeway to catch up on late maneuvers as well as a safe (!) place to double check the mission profile, we were told, la, la, la. What a funny music! If any problems were detected, the crew could be brought home from Earth or Moon orbit much more easily (!) than they could be from a variable speed lunar transit. But it was just propaganda. As shown below, even using the described method, there was no extra fuel available on the LM and SM to correct any mistakes that were not possible to correct anyway for physical reasons. Nobody or nothing can be brought home from space, when anything goes wrong.
The Apollo 11 1969 manned Moon trip, read hoax, went something like:
Total fuel aboard the LM was thus 10 851 kg. LM and SM used same fuel. The LM had no toilet!
The Service Module engine was thus obstructed by the Lunar Module (LM) fitted below it at departure. On the way to the Moon, the CSM was therefore disconnected from the LM, rotated 180° in vacuum space and reconnected to the LM.
Imagine - you need a rocket like this to send three persons to piss on the Moon 1969:
I really wonder how anyone can believe it 2017!
Table starts when the Apollo 11 Control, Service Modules, CSM, and Lunar Module, LM, fitted on the full of fuel Saturn V rockets third stage are already on the way at ~7 500 m/s velocity in Earth orbit put there by the Saturn V rocket's first and second stages (Event #1) ... at about 190 000 m altitude.
At that speed and altitude you go around Earth in about 90 minutes! If you go slower you will soon crash on Earth.
The total mass of Apollo 11 CSM + third stage was then 135 699, 162 338 or 338.692 kg (the heaviest figure from . Nobody seems to know!!! Many other, different figures exist. Everywhere I look I get different numbers. This is the first anomaly of the description of the impossible trip ... ending in a magic nine minutes re-entry!
Then the third stage rocket engine is allegedly fired (Event #3) and the Apollo 11 modules are sent off at ~11 200 m/s velocity in direction Moon about 380 000 km away ... or where the Moon will be three days later. Plenty of fuel was used for getting off the Earth ...3 798 350 liters (or about 3 400+ tons) ... but all carried in separate rocket stages.
Event #1 had been done for Apollo10 before by people on the ground. The asstronuts aboard Apollo 11 just had to hope for the best.
The Saturn V first rocket stage with steering fins and 1 311 100 liters liquid oxygen + 810 700 liters kerosene (total mass of fuel about 2 169 tons) for five F-1 engines with 6.672.000 N thrust each and second rocket stage with no fins - 1.000.000 liters liquid hydrogen (mass 709 tons) + 331 000 liters liquid oxygen (mass 468 tons) for five J-2 engines with 889 600 N thrust each were apparently used to get the Apollo 11 (CSM+LM) and the third rocket stage into Earth Parking Orbit or Low Earth Orbit around planet Earth at 7 500 m/s speed.
The first stage burnt 2 121 800 liters fuel in 161 (or 150) seconds, 13 179 liters/second (or 12 705 liters/second or 12 885 kg/second according Wiki) fuel and brought the second and third stages + Apollo 11 to a height of 68 000 m and a speed of 2.755 m/s - location Z.
Imagine burning about 2 169 000 kg of fuel in 161 seconds producing 33 360 kN thrust. It would appear that the rocket engine SFC was 0.404 kg/kN s. Quite good for a rocket engine in the atmosphere getting thinner the higher you get.
Stage 1 used 2 151 (or 2 169) tons of fuel to lift 654 tons of stages 2 and 3 and Apollo 11 to 68 000 m altitude and 2.755 m/s speed - location Z, while 135.tons of scrap dropped back down on Earth and crashed or was blown up (it was probably just a mock-up).
According http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnv.htm the Saturn V rocket stage 1 had gross mass 2 286 217 kg and empty mass 135 218 kg and therefore a fuel mass 2 150 999 kg.
The second stage  burnt 1 331 000 liters hydrogen/oxygen fuel in about 389 seconds - 3 422 liters/second producing the required force and visible exhaust to get the third stage + Apollo 11 (and empty stage 2!) into Earth Parking Orbit, EPO, or Low Earth Orbit, LEO, location Y - at speed 7 500 m/s (or 6 848 m/s ?)and only 185.900 m altitude.
Imagine burning about 1 177 tons (!!) of fuel in 389 seconds producing just 4 448 kN thrust. Then SFC was 0.68 kg/kN s. Sounds bad. According Wiki the weight or mass of the fuel was only 444 tons! Then SFC was 0.256 kg/kN s. Sounds better.
According http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnv.htm the Saturn V rocket stage 2 had gross mass 490 778 kg and empty mass 39 048 kg and therefore a fuel mass 451 730 kg or 452 tons.
There is a difference of 752 tons (!!) of fuel or 38% to get into EPO.
I find it strange. Let's just accept that stage 2 mass/fuel weights and orbit altitude are uncertain (and that also stage 2 was mock-up).
You should of course also wonder what kind of fuel pumps, compressors, turbines or whatever - over pressurized fuel tanks? - could deliver such great amounts of fuel so fast to the five F-1 and five J-1 engines and the size of the fuel pipes and the velocity of the fuel inside the pipes. Unfortunately all drawings and specifications of the Saturn V rocket are lost.
As explained above the Apollo
11 spacecraft start mass itself was only
43 802 (or 45 743) kg. The fully loaded mass of the
3rd stage rocket (height 18.8 m, diameter
6.6 m) was 294 890 kg (empty mass
10 000 kg + 253 200 liters liquid
hydrogen (mass 179 520 kg) +
liters liquid oxygen (mass 105 370 kg) as
fuel) according Wikipedia
(but the values change or are updated all the time.
Imagine correcting 1969 Apollo 11 data
2015!) According http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnv.htm
the Saturn V 3rd stage rocket had gross mass
only 119 900 kg and empty mass 13 300
kg and therefore a fuel mass 106 600
kg. Here the gross difference is 174 990 kg
or 54%. According  there are
As explained above the Apollo 11 spacecraft start mass itself was only 43 802 (or 45 743) kg.
The fully loaded mass of the 3rd stage rocket (height 18.8 m, diameter 6.6 m) was 294 890 kg (empty mass 10 000 kg + 253 200 liters liquid hydrogen (mass 179 520 kg) + 92.350 liters liquid oxygen (mass 105 370 kg) as fuel) according Wikipedia (but the values change or are updated all the time. Imagine correcting 1969 Apollo 11 data 2015!)
According http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnv.htm the Saturn V 3rd stage rocket had gross mass only 119 900 kg and empty mass 13 300 kg and therefore a fuel mass 106 600 kg. Here the gross difference is 174 990 kg or 54%.
According  there are other figures.
This enormous mass is now in Kepler orbit at a certain altitude and speed - Earth Parking Orbit, EPO - around Earth, where the gravity force equals the centrifugal force. At a certain, exact time and location in EPO you must now apply a new force in a certain exact direction and duration so that CSM + LM + third stage departs versus the Moon or a location X, where Moon gravity will pull the spacecraft to the target. Location X is moving all the time, when the Moon orbits Earth.
The Ariane 62 uses two booster rockets to put 3 tons in LEO and the Ariane 64 uses four booster rockets at put 10 tons in LEO at much reduced costs. No rocket will be available to put 150-300 tons in LEO, though, to enable manned trips to the Moon or planet Mars ... ever! Any human in space will be fried to death there and cannot ever return as re-entries are not possible.
Event #2 had also been executed remotely from ground - Apollo 10 - so the asstronuts aboard didn't have to do anything ... if they were aboard?
Two hours, 44 minutes and one-and-a-half Earth orbits after launch the third rocket stage with 253 200 liters liquid hydrogen + 92.350 liters liquid oxygen (total mass 284 890 kg or 105 235 kg ) for 1 J-2 engine with 889 600 N thrust reignited for a burn of 349 seconds, placing Apollo 11 (CSM+LM) and itself en route to the Moon about 384 000 000 meters away, i.e. where the Moon will be after about 75 hours. It is called trans-lunar injection, TLI. Speed was reportedly increased from 7 500 to 11 200 m/s.
Or the third stage was fired twice? First 165 seconds to reach 7 823 m/s speed and then 312 seconds to speed up to 10 952 m/s speed. And much less fuel used?
The idea was to change the more or less circular orbit 200-300 km around Earth to an elliptical orbit with its apoapsis or apocenter 330.000 km >11 00 times further away from Earth at location "X". At the apoapsis or apocenter you should one way or other enter into orbit around Moon, which itselfs orbits Earth. If Moon wasn't there - no problem - you would just return to Earth by gravity in your elliptic orbit.
There are in fact many ways to go to the Moon. More or less straight. Curved. Or very curved. All depends on how, when and where you start in orbit around Earth and the force applied! All trajectories have different distances, variable speeds and directions and will take different times to execute ... while the Moon is moving at constant speed far away.
The first question to solve is how much fuel is required to increase speed from 7 500 to, e.g. 11 200 m/s to get out of orbit around Earth in any start direction towards Moon.
If Apollo 11 + third stage mass before m0 was 338 695 kg and mass after m1 was 53 802 kg and velocity before was 7 500 m/s and velocity after was 11.200 m/s, delta-V is 3 700 m/s, then the exhaust ve was 2 011 m/s according Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky. It does not sound right. But maybe the total mass before was only 118 000 kg (as some people suggest - because it is all a Saturn V can lift into LEO) and only 64 198 kg of fuel was used. Then the exhaust ve was 4 711 m/s. But let's face! You cannot use Tsiolkovsky in a strong gravity field (only in space away from other masses). You must use other methods to calculate force and fuel used to get away from orbit around Earth towards the Moon.
Therefore, whatever fuel Apollo 11 could carry with it in LEO was not sufficient to increase speed to got to Moon using any trajectory. End of trip!
The second question to solve is how to put a spacecraft in an elliptical orbit around Earth with a period of say 6 days with its apoapsis or apocenter at the Moon orbit 330 000 km away. The periapsis or pericenter is always Earth at 300 km away. Do you start in low, circular orbit around Earth, LEO, and then apply a rocket engine force there for 5/6 minutes and your orbit becomes elliptical? Is it really possible? So what force was required? How much fuel did you need? How much was the momentum increased during the TLI? Say you apply a force of 889 600 N as proposed by NASA for Apollo 11.
The 889 600 N thrust must also be applied at exactly the right time and location in Earth orbit and in exactly the right direction in 3D space to ensure you will arrive at the Moon one way or another.
Details how it was done 1969 are not available. It supports the suspicion that it never happened. You didn't have the fuel for it.
Furthermore you cannot establish the time, location, direction and amplitude of the force to apply to reach location X in space, where Moon gravity becomes stronger than Earth gravity, i.e. Earth gravity will no longer slow you down and change your direction towards Earth but Moon gravity will take over and pull you towards the centre of the Moon. It is assumed that the ecliptic coordinate system was used in which the Moon orbit is inclined 5.1° to the ecliptic but rotates around itself at another inclination and you should wonder how the Apollo 11 crew could handle it all. Sorry, all was remote control checked by 100's of experts at Houston.
990 liters H2 + 02 fuel per second (816 kg/s) was burnt becoming water to get out of low Earth orbit. At the end of the 349 seconds burn the spacecraft pilots could maybe see the Moon at bearing 40.11° on the side!
So by applying, at the right time, 889 600 N force for 349 seconds in a certain (absolute right!) direction, the velocity of the CSM+LM, mass 43.802 kg (or 96 567 lb) and the empty third stage with mass 10 000 kg (or 13.000!) velocity increased from 7 500 m/s to 11 200 m/s (or 10 834.3 m/s) - events # 2 and 3 - and the course changed from Kepler orbital around Earth to an about 40.11° elliptical trajectory (not straight!) relative to the Moon at that time and according Newton ... or something like it. This invented 5 minutes 49 seconds trans-lunar injection rocket engine burn maybe took place behind Earth with the Moon hidden behind Earth = the Moon had not yet risen! But maybe it was done with the Moon in full view. Nobody really knows (as it never happened!)
The tangential speed should be 1 023 m/s, i.e. same as the one of the Moon.
However - already 10 minutes later the speed was only 9 532.0 m/s - Earth gravity was immediately slowing down the trip 1.302.3 m/s during 600 seconds or by 2.17 m/s² while travelling 1 929 796 m at average speed about 3 216 m/s according Braeunig trying to calculate the elliptical trajectory. In space distances and speeds are always funny! 15 minutes later the speed was reduced to 6 646.2 m/s after having travelled another 4 676 952 m ... at average speed 5 196.6 m/s. I assume Braeunig just makes up numbers going along like most space science fiction writers.
Say that you used 284 890 kg of
fuel to accelerate 53 802 kg spacecraft from
7 500 to 11 200 m/s requiring
1 861 GJ, then the fuel consumption was 0.65
MJ/kg. On the other hand if you only use 64 198
kg the fuel consumption is 4.44 times smaller. Will we
ever know? But how to get 285 tons of fuel into
orbit? The max payload of the Saturn V rocket was only
130 tons. The Command and Service
Modules, total mass 28 801 kgs,
disconnected from the Lunar Module and the
empty 3rd stage rocket, total
mass 25 102 - 28 402 kgs. The
Command and Service Modules then flipped
180° and reconnected to the top of the
Lunar Module and started the flight towards
location X and from there to the leading
edge of the Moon. And then the third stage was
dumped! Quite impressive! Imagine doing
this at 11 200 or 9 532 m/s speed.
Of course you do it in empty space but while you do
it, the Lunar Module and the
Command/Service Modules are not
connected. Masses used hereafter are from
 page A11. Other NASA
sources confusingly indicate other masses, info,
etc, as expected. The 3rd stage rocket was dumped
but evidently also went on to the location X
and the trailing edge of the Moon ... but missed
the Moon by 1 825 miles and continued
into Eternity [1
15.0] or started orbit
the Sun (!) according NASA report
SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE FLIGHT EVALUATION REPORT -
AS-506 APOLLO II
I always wonder why the third
stage didn't crash on the Moon. Or a gravity
assisted kick took place? No, the third stage was slowed
down to miss the Moon. It was also flipped
180°, so the 3rd stage rocket engine could
make a final brake burn! Maybe it used 3 000
kg fuel to brake?
The Command and Service Modules, total mass 28 801 kgs, disconnected from the Lunar Module and the empty 3rd stage rocket, total mass 25 102 - 28 402 kgs. The Command and Service Modules then flipped 180° and reconnected to the top of the Lunar Module and started the flight towards location X and from there to the leading edge of the Moon. And then the third stage was dumped!
Quite impressive! Imagine doing this at 11 200 or 9 532 m/s speed. Of course you do it in empty space but while you do it, the Lunar Module and the Command/Service Modules are not connected.
Masses used hereafter are from  page A11. Other NASA sources confusingly indicate other masses, info, etc, as expected. The 3rd stage rocket was dumped but evidently also went on to the location X and the trailing edge of the Moon ... but missed the Moon by 1 825 miles and continued into Eternity [1 15.0] or started orbit the Sun (!) according NASA report MPR-SAT-FE-69-9 SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE FLIGHT EVALUATION REPORT - AS-506 APOLLO II MISSION:
I always wonder why the third stage didn't crash on the Moon. Or a gravity assisted kick took place?
No, the third stage was slowed down to miss the Moon. It was also flipped 180°, so the 3rd stage rocket engine could make a final brake burn! Maybe it used 3 000 kg fuel to brake?
After final LM separation, [the 3rd stage rocket] was placed on a lunar slingshot trajectory. This trajectory was accomplished by slowing down [the 3rd stage rocket] to make it pass by the trailing edge of the moon and obtain sufficient energy to continue to a solar orbit.
On July 17, a scheduled midcourse correction programmed for the flight took place. If it were up/down/left/right is not clear. The launch, i.e. the trans-lunar injection, had been so successful, we are told, that the other three (sic) scheduled course corrections were not needed. Event # 4.1 97 kg fuel was used. According  two corrections took place.
During the lunar trajectory the external surface of the CSM/LM exposed perpendicular to the Sun was heated up to 120C. Compare event #11 and the temperature on the Moon exposed to the Sun. Planet Earth surfaces perpendicular to the Sun should also be heated up to 120C by the Sun unless protected by an atmosphere and subject to rotation.
During the lunar trajectory the velocity was reduced from 10 834.3 m/s at 2.15.13 hms to 790.7 m/s at (about?) 75.00.00 hms influenced by Earth gravity pulling you back towards the centre of Earth according Newton and Robert A. Braeunig. The direction of flight was clearly influenced as Earth tried to pull the CSM back. At about 90% of the distance between Earth/Moon - location X - the Moon gravity became stronger and the CSM/LM started to accelerate now towards the centre of the Moon. The direction also started to change as Moon gravity force is directed to the centre of the Moon and not towards a point 115.000 metres above Moon surface in the horizontal/tangential direction.
The CSM/LM trajectory was not straight as planet Earth continued in its steady orbit around the Sun applying its gravity force on the CSM/LM, while it was going to location X and the Moon.
At 75 hours, 41 minutes, 39 seconds (75.41.39 hms) into the flight, i.e. 7 minutes, 45 seconds before the lunar-orbit insertion burn, the velocity was 2.336 m/s (the times are really confusing) and increasing due to getting closer to the Moon and the spacecraft mass was 43 550 kg (or something like it?)
Now it gets very interesting!
2.5 Events # 5 and 6 - Slowing down very suddenly to drop into orbit around the Moon = lunar orbit insertion maneuver
At about 75 hours, 50 minutes into the flight the spacecraft had total mass of 43 574 kg (or 96.062 lb) and an increased speed ~2 400 m/s from location X but in a new direction horizontally (sic) at 115 000 m altitude above the Moon.
Since about five hours (not more,) the Apollo 11 spacecraft was subject to Moon gravity and was accelerated towards the centre of the Moon moving ahead sideways in front of you. The tangential speed is assumed to be 1.023 m/s, i.e. Apollo 11 is moving tangentially sideways at same speed of the Moon.
We are told that a retrograde firing of the service module, SM, P-22KS rocket engine with 97 400 N thrust for 357.5 seconds at exactly the right time and in exactly the right direction reduced the speed to 1 500 m/s at 2.52 m/s² deceleration and placed the spacecraft into an initial, elliptical-lunar orbit at about 115 000 m altitude. Events # 5 and 6. Ref. [1-Table 8.6-2] states other speeds. Maybe 10 898 kg of fuel was used.
If mass before m0 was 43 574 kg and mass after m1 was 32 676 kg and velocity before was 2 400 m/s and velocity after was 1.500 m/s, delta-v is 900 m/s, then the exhaust ve was 3 127 m/s according Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky. Why not? But you cannot ignore the Moon gravity pulling you down all the time, though.
That's all! A Lunar Orbit Insertion, LOI, took place! Details how it was done are not available.
How the CSM could arrive at that position in space with the correct direction/velocity to fire the rocket engine is a mystery.
Thus by applying a brake force of 97 400 N during 357.5 seconds to the CSM/LM in a certain direction, the CSM/LM was afterwards subject only to the centrifugal force at a certain orbital altitude around the Moon. Magic!
The Moon orbits planet Earth at a velocity of 1 023 m/s in another direction. And not in the ecliptic!
In order for the Apollo 11 spacecraft to 'drop' into lunar orbit you must evidently change the radial velocity away from Earth, whatever it is, to the one orbiting the Moon. But the spacecraft prior this maneuver is also directed towards the centre of the Moon according Newton. It is very complicated.
The Moon has radius 1 738 000 m. The lunar-orbit has thus radius 1 853 000 m. The lunar-orbit has circumference about 11.643.000 m. There is no change in potential energy as you remain at 115.000 m altitude during lunar orbit insertion (forgetting it is a little elliptical). During the 357.5 seconds braking the Moon displaces 365 722 meters sideways ... like Apollo 11.
You apparently need a big, powerful rocket engine of the SM, as it is only used to brake or accelerate in space to get in/out of Moon orbit, where you have little time to maneuver.
It thus took about 73 hours or 262 800 seconds to travel the distance R = 384 000 000 meters to the Moon = the radius R of the Moon orbit around Earth. Average velocity during that trip was ~1 460 m/s. During that time the target - the Moon - moved 262.800x1 023 = 268 844 400 meters in orbit around Earth, because the velocity of the Moon is 1 023 m/s. It means that at start of Moon travel the Moon was at bearing 40.11° on the side of Apollo 11 and near 0° or straight ahead on arrival to insert into lunar orbit at 115 000 m altitude.
Of course the bearing changed all the time, like the distance travelled and the local speed, during the 73 hrs passage, but if you got off to a correct start towards location X with the Moon at exactly 40.11° on your side and in the horizontal plane of Earth/moon, then no adjustments were required during the trip. It is not easy to navigate in 3-D space when the target - the Moon - is also moving, luckily at constant speed, ahead of you - but in 90° the other direction.
Imagine starting at 11 200 m/s speed in a certain direction and then slow down to about 800 m/s in another direction due Earth gravity during 66 (or 75 - see Robert A. Braeunig above) hrs and then speed up again to ~2 400 m/s in a new direction during 7 hours (or whatever?), when Moon gravity gets hold of you.
And after 262 800 seconds of variable speeds space travel a 357.5 seconds blast to produce 97 400 N thrust, burning 10 898 kg of fuel, dropped you suddenly into Moon orbit. Amazing. Imagine burning almost 11 tons of fuel just to brake for 6 minutes and suddenly you are in Moon orbit! In 1969. Details how it was done are evidently not available.
But do not forget that the Moon and Apollo 11 have their own orbital (sideways) velocities of 1 023 m/s around the Earth, when you were coming in ahead and is pulling you to it. Those velocities must remain constant.
The Moon and Apollo 11 thus moved 365 722 meters sideways, while Apollo 11 travelled 697.125 meters in another direction while braking straight to get into Moon orbit at 115 000 meters altitude. 697 125 m brake distance is 5.99% of the total Moon orbit circumference 11.643.000 m. So you also turn 21.56° while braking and losing 10 898 kg mass. Hm? It does not sound right!
How was this space intercourse actually done? Apollo 11 just braking at the right time/location from 2 400 m/s to 1 500 m/s speed in one direction and magically attached itself to or slid into the orbit of the moving Moon? It seems quite easy to enter into orbit of a rather fast moving moon according NASA. Quite sexy, actually! You just drop in. It was not a gravity assisted kick!
The Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/(kN*s), SFC, seems to be 10 898 /(97.4x357.5) = 0.313 kg/kN s but it is just a relationship between thrust and fuel burnt and not an indication of work done and energy required to drop into orbit of a Moon moving at high - 1.023 - m/s speed in orbit around Earth.
The three spacecrafts mass after this wonderful brake/drop in maneuver was 32 676 kg (or 72 038 lb).
The kinetic energy before braking was 43574*2400²/2 = 125.5 GJ and after braking 32676*1500²/2 = 36.76 GJ, i.e. change in kinetic energy due braking was 88.73 GJ. Self appointed space travel experts suggest that you cannot calculate the kinetic energy in space like I do, as the 'space' is moving at another velocity than the one relative Earth/Moon to be added or subtracted to the ones given but as the latter speed is not known to them, I keep it simple as indicated.
It seems we agree that fuel/energy, in this case 10 898 kg, was used to change the pre-drop-in velocity of the spacecraft from something - 2.400 m/s - to the one orbiting the Moon - 1 500 m/s and that the spacecraft in the process became 10 898 kg lighter. But maybe I should add the tangential speed of the Moon to the one of Apollo 11?
The amount of fuel on the CSM used for events # 5 and 6 was 10 898 kg that equals the change in spacecraft mass before/after braking. The 10 898 kg mass of fuel evidently disappeared in space as exhaust fumes.
In order to do a correct braking - reducing speed - in universe of a spacecraft by retrograde firing of a rocket engine close to the moving Moon in orbit of Earth, the rocket engine outlet must evidently be at the right location and be positioned in right direction of flight during the 700 000 to 900 000 m braking trajectory ... thus the spacecraft flips 180° with pilots looking backwards ... not seeing the Moon at all through the spacecraft windows.
The three brave space pilots flew backwards, when suddenly - at exactly the correct time and location - they were braking to drop into Moon orbit. At start of braking the 43.5 ton spacecraft velocity was 2 400 m/s. Then you applied the 12.7 (or 9.74) ton rocket engine brake force (127.28 kN or 97.4 kN according other sources) to your 43.5 ton spacecraft and braking started. At end of braking, 357.5 seconds later spacecraft velocity was 1 500 m/s and you were in an elliptic Moon orbit after having spent 10.898 kg fuel at rate 30 kg/second.
You probably were at same altitude 115 000 m during the maneuver, but who knows and cares? During this time the Moon and Apollo 11 moved 365 722 meter sideways which you had to consider one way or another. If you had directed your rocket engine in the wrong direction, you would not have been in orbit around the Moon but going astray or crashed. Note that Apollo 11 has no fuel reserves or redundancy. One error and you are finished!
The conversation of the asstroholes during the 6 minutes lunar orbit insertion, LOI, burn between 75 hrs 50 minutes and 75 hrs 56 minutes of the flight does not reveal anything dramatic ... except that they can see the Moon while braking backwards with the LM at the end of the spacecraft. How was it possible? Were the three (crazy?) assholes aboard piloting the spacecraft manually with compass/chart pushing the brake button or pedal in the process looking out through the window like on an airplane? How did they know what was up/down/right/left and the directions of velocity and the force.
How was the steering done? Assisted by 1969 made computers and instruments? It is suggested that Moon gravity actually caused Apollo 11 to turn 21.56°, while speed decreased and that the brake burn started behind the Moon with the pilots looking aft but then they were already in orbit. If the brake force was applied a little too much left or right or up or down, they could easily crash on the Moon or fly off into Universe. NASA seems 2015 unable to provide an answer. But:
"The steering of the docked spacecraft was exceptionally smooth, and the control of applied velocity change (sic - thrust?) was extremely accurate, as evidenced by the fact that residuals were only 0.1 ft/sec in all axes." [1-4.6]
Amazingly, Apollo 11 managed to leave its trajectory to get into Moon orbit 1969 one unbelievable way or another, we are told to believe, and a little later the LM undocked from the CSM and started its descent towards the Moon. The show (hoax) went on!
If you ask Google 2015 how it was done there is no answer.
According Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky the change in speed/direction of a spacecraft in space is a function of the mass ratio (spacecraft mass before and after firing the rocket engine) and the exhaust velocity of gases leaving the spacecraft rocket engine nozzle but NASA will not tell us the latter (5 100 m/s?), so here I use the described method. Note that you need plenty fuel just to change direction in 3D space! First you have to stop in one direction requiring fuel and then accelerate in the new direction requiring more fuel. Otherwise you just continue in the original direction, etc, etc.
2.6 Events # 8-10 - Eagle undocking, descent and landing on the Moon (and how it was done)
On July 20 at 100 hours, 12 minutes into the flight, the LM Eagle, mass 15 279 kg (or 33 683 lb), undocked and a little later separated from CSM Columbia, mass about 16 623 kg (36 647 lb). Event # 8. Altitude was about 100 000 m.
"Particular care was exercised in the operation of both vehicles throughout the undocking and separation sequences to insure that the lunar module guidance computer maintained an accurate knowledge of position and velocity." [1-4.9]
The undocking took place in full sun light as per below figure from .
The descent trajectory is very simple; a the right time and location in Moon orbit, the LM Eagle undocks from CSM Columbia and starts to slow down/brake so altitude and speed is reduced. As you brake with one engine, you have to change the pitch all the time (from 0° to 90°) until you touch down at ground zero with zero speed.
At 101 hours, 36 minutes, when the LM was behind the Moon in the cold -150C shadow on its 13th orbit, the LM descent engine with 46 700 N thrust fired for 30 seconds to provide retrograde, i.e. braking thrust and to commence descent orbit insertion, changing to an orbit of 9 by 67 miles, on a trajectory that was virtually identical to that flown by Apollo 10. It means that the LM was losing altitude, while initial velocity 1 500 m/s was decreasing. The idea was to land on the Moon sunny side where temperature was a hot 120C also facing Earth.
So the CSM/LM orbited the Moon with circumference about 11 000 kms 13 times in about 26 hours - average speed thus 1 500 m/s. Relative the Moon of course. The Moon orbits the Earth at 1 023 m/s. Half the orbit time the CSM/LM was cooled down to -150C in the shade, half the time heated up to +120C in the sunny side. It was like putting a hot plate in a freezer 13 times. But there were no structural problems with the CSM/LM, e.g. cracking up due to thermal expansion and similar. NASA engineers had thought of everything, so the hoax would not be upset by temperature changes.
To land on the Moon is very complicated according to Floyd V. Bennett.
Descent initiation was performed with the LM rocket engine firing for 756.3 seconds with 46.7 kN thrust. With an SFC of 0.24 kg/kN s then 8 476 kg of fuel was used.
After eight minutes, at 101 hours, 44 minutes, the LM was at "High gate" about 26.000 feet (7 925 meter) (or 7 500 ft - figure below) above the surface and about five miles (8 040 meter) from the landing site. The velocity parallel to the Moon ground is not known but now Mr.. Aldrin really had to slow down early to avoid crashing and killing Mr.. Armstrong. With original speed 1 500 m/s you would arrive at the landing site after <5 seconds! And you must change your attitude from parallel to perpendicular. And you need plenty vertical thrust just to keep staying above ground. The Moon gravity a = 1.6 m/s² really pulls you down. What drama!
Just prior to powered descent (actually braking all the time!) the LM crew managed the following important manual check on inertial platform drift at 1 500 m/s speed:
"Just prior to powered descent, the angle between the line of sight to the sun and a selected axis of the inertial platform was compared with the onboard computer prediction of that angle and this provided a check on inertial platform drift." [1-4.10.2] blah, blah! LOL!
Imagine that - manually checking the computer calculations using the Sun behind you at 1 500 m/s speed! On the shadow, dark side the asstronuts used stars for navigation. How to steer an LM with only one big rocket engine is described here! It looks as if it is impossible.
The bottom part of the LM - the descent stage looks like this:
The LM descent engine continued to provide constant 46.7 kN (? - probably reduced) braking thrust until about 102 hours, 45 minutes (?) into the mission when the LM Eagle, arrival mass 7 327 kg (16 153 lb) landed in the Sea of Tranquility at 0 degrees, 41 minutes, 15 seconds north latitude and 23 degrees, 26 minutes east longitude.
It seems total 7 952 kg fuel was used to land under very confusing and dangerous circumstances.
You would expect that you could vary the 5 tons thrust to slow down or stop the descent from very fast 1 500 m/s to say quite slow 20 m/s and change attitude from parallel to perpendicular - to have a look around - and then slowly descend the last 10 meters, but there is no indication that you could do it.
The complete LM looks like this:
Imagine manually controlling a powerful rocket engine (thrust and direction) that can provide 5 tons (46.7 kN) thrust onto a 7.4 ton (7 327 kg) spacecraft in a low gravity 1.6 m/s² field ... while standing up! This Aldrin asstrohole was fantastically clever! An American HERO! Tilting the spacecraft from parallel 1 500 m/s speed to perpendicular motion 20 m/s relative the Moon in the mean time.
Another, slightly better, description of the LM landing is NASA TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM TM X - 58040 March 1970 written a little later by the engineers that planned the whole thing starting already 1961. If it happened in reality is evidently another story. It sounds like science fiction to me. Here the landing is in two stages. First you brake and change the altitude from 100 000 meters (62~58 nautical miles) to 15 000 meters (50 000 feet). The LM speed then increases (!) to about 1 700 m/s (5 560 fps) at the lower 15 000 m altitude and then (Table 7) after 26 seconds there is full thrust (46.7 kN) in the exactly correct direction during 5 minutes and 58 seconds, when the speed is reduced to about 440 m/s (1 456 fps) at about 7 500 m (24 639 feet) altitude.
If the rocket engine was directed in the wrong way, you would evidently go off course now. With average speed 1 070 m/s during 358 seconds braking you travelled 383 060 m, but we do not know, if the course/direction was right. The pilots probably had no maps to follow and they were still high above ground and magnetic compasses do not work on the Moon. But the LM was on autopilot then, we are supposed to believe, and it knew exactly speed and course. The astro clowns were just looking out the window admiring the scenery flashing by at high speed and chatting with Houston ... as if they were on a slow airplane landing.
Then during 5 and a half minutes the rocket engine was throttled automatically (but we do not know how much and how - except it was automatic). After 2 minutes 2 seconds they were at High gate (what a stupid name!) - speed now only 150 m/s (506 fps), which is quite a lot, and altitude 2 300 m (7 515 feet) and another 1 minute 40 seconds at Low gate - speed 19 m/s (55-68 fps) and altitude 150 m (512 feet) - maybe now Aldrin starts to pilot manually - and after another 1 minute 48 seconds they landed.
Note the change in altitude from 2 300 to 150 m or 2 150 m during 100 seconds. The vertical drop speed was then 21.5 m/s, but a little later the rocket engine was directed straight down and you slowed down to <2 m/s vertical speed to land!
Maybe they travelled another 35 990 m to reach High Gate and another 8 500 m to reach Low Gate. Regardless, the LM landed virtually spot on the planned location or less than 5 000 m. A miracle!
We do not know the fuel used for the various maneuvers, just the total. To assist the pilot there were radars, autopilot, gyros, speed log, a computer, a compass, fuel gauges, all sorts of warning lights and other useful, 1960's models equipment to use and look at. The attitudes, times, the tilting of the LM differ in the two descriptions. How much thrust was required to keep the LM virtually hovering over the Moon is not known. It seems - (Table II) that 8 070 kg (17 934.6 lb) of fuel was available to carry out the braking and that almost all was used. There were no margins at all. The probability of failure and crash was 1! But with Keith Glennan, ex- studio manager of Paramount Pictures and the Samuel Goldwyn Studios and later NASA boss, it became 0. James E. Webb just ensured it. What a show! Poh. 1000% fantasy. And they got away with it. The Americans are really not very bright.
The LM kinetic energy before descent was 15279*1500²/2 = 17.19 GJ and after landing 0 GJ, i.e. change in kinetic energy due braking was 17.19 GJ. The LM potential energy before decent was 15279*100000*1.63= 2.49 GJ (and 0 on the Moon Surface). Total energy change was 19.68 GJ.
As 7 952 kg fuel (17 227 lb of 18 184 lb available aboard ) was used to overcome 19.68 GJ energy, 1 kg of fuel produced 2.47 MJ brake energy; fuel consumption 2.47 MJ/kg. It seems the LM rocket engine used 3.3 times more fuel than the SM.
But the SFC was 7 952/(46.7 x 756.3) = 0.225 kg/kN s, if the engine was just fired 756.3 seconds. But the time is not certain or less fuel was used when throttling.
Again there were no margins or fuel reserves. Had Aldrin continued flying around and run out of fuel at 20 meters height he would have crashed from 20 meters height.
After landing asstronut Armstrong reported:
"Houston, Tranquility Base here - the Eagle has landed."
Two and a half hours after landing, before preparations began for the promenade on the Moon, Buzz Aldrin radioed to Earth:
"This is the LM pilot. I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours and to give thanks in his or her own way."
Buzz then took communion privately. Aldrin was an elder at the Webster Presbyterian Church, and his communion kit was prepared by the pastor of the church, the Rev. Dean Woodruff. Buzz described communion on the Moon (or where ever he was? - Las Vegas?) and the involvement of his church and pastor in the October 1970 edition of Guideposts magazine and in his book Return to Earth. Webster Presbyterian possesses the chalice used on the Moon and commemorates the event each year on the Sunday closest to July 20.
In order to open the hatch and step down on the Moon, the Lunar Module had to be depressurized. The one bar air pressure inside the LM cabin had to be reduced to the no air vacuum on the Moon. The asstronuts had to dress in space suits with its own PLSS air supply, etc. Page 22 of  reports:
"Depressurization of the lunar module was one aspect of the mission that had never been completely performed on the ground. In the various altitude chamber tests of the spacecraft and the extravehicular mobility unit, a complete set of authentic conditions was never present. The depressurization of the lunar module through the bacteria filter took much longer than had been anticipated. The indicated cabin pressure did not go below 0.1 psi, and some concern was experienced in opening the forward hatch against this residual pressure. The hatch appeared to bend on initial opening, and small particles appeared to be blown out around the hatch when the seal was broken."
It seems depressurization worked. How repressurization, i.e. filling the LM with air, was done later is not clear.
Armstrong, in his space suit +
PLSS, stepped into the 120C hot lunar
surface dust (when subject to perpendicular
radiation of the Sun) at 02:56:15
UT on 21 July stating, Somebody took a photo of the
boot trace in the dust later. His boots didn't melt
in the 120C hot Moon dust. Aldrin followed
19 minutes later. The astronauts deployed the flag
(Buzz was prevented planting a cross) and
instruments, took photographs, and collected very
hot - 120C - lunar rock and soil and
Armstrong, in his space suit + PLSS, stepped into the 120C hot lunar surface dust (when subject to perpendicular radiation of the Sun) at 02:56:15 UT on 21 July stating,
Somebody took a photo of the boot trace in the dust later. His boots didn't melt in the 120C hot Moon dust. Aldrin followed 19 minutes later. The astronauts deployed the flag (Buzz was prevented planting a cross) and instruments, took photographs, and collected very hot - 120C - lunar rock and soil and dust:
"Approximately 20 selected, but unphotographed, grab samples (about 6 kilograms) were collected in the final minutes of the extravehicular activity. These specimens were collected out to a distance of 0 to 15 meters in the area south of the lunar module and near the east rim of the large double crater. ... During bulk sampling, rock fragments were collected primarily on the northeast rim of the large double crater southwest of the lunar module". [1-11.1.5]
Strangely enough the asstronuts didn't measure the temperature of the samples exposed to the Sun. Maybe they were too hot - 120C? And you wonder what the temperature was inside the space suits? Evidently the temperature was less in shadow areas.
No gravity experiments were carried out, e.g. to drop a piece of rock from the LM platform down to ground, distance 3.61 meters, and film it. The drop would take exactly 2 seconds (compared with 0.86 seconds on Earth). But why drop it? Throw it upwards instead. It will really go far! It would have looked nice ... and is difficult to fake.
On the other hand they allegedly
left an experiment on the lunar surface to
prove that they had been
there, which (2004 or 2017) continues to work as
well as it did the day it got there, 1969.
11 lunar laser retro
of 100 fused silica half cubes, called corner
cubes, mounted in a 46-centimeter (18-inch) square
aluminum panel. Each corner cube is 3.8 centimeters
(1.5 inches) in diameter. Corner cubes reflect a
beam of light directly back toward its point of
origin. Anyone can send a laser signal to it on the
Moon and the signal will bounce back - ergo - the
cosmokrauts were on the Moon. It is further
However, in 1969 they
forgot to tell anybody about it. Imagine that! A
whole or half silica cube with a diameter that
On the other hand they allegedly left an experiment on the lunar surface to prove that they had been there, which (2004 or 2017) continues to work as well as it did the day it got there, 1969.
The Apollo 11 lunar laser retro reflector consists of 100 fused silica half cubes, called corner cubes, mounted in a 46-centimeter (18-inch) square aluminum panel. Each corner cube is 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter. Corner cubes reflect a beam of light directly back toward its point of origin. Anyone can send a laser signal to it on the Moon and the signal will bounce back - ergo - the cosmokrauts were on the Moon. It is further described here.
However, in 1969 they forgot to tell anybody about it. Imagine that! A whole or half silica cube with a diameter that bounces light!
"Oral-B becomes the first toothbrush to go to the moon. Oral-B brushes were on board the Apollo 11 mission, the first moon landing." Source
Back of Earth main stream media reported, as if they were on the spot, wellcoming the heros:
This is how propaganda works.
At later Moon visits the asstronuts took, apart from tooth brushes, a car along so they didn't need to walk. Then they had to depressurize and repressurize the LM every time between driving around on the Moon.
Evidently the car also heated up to 120C in the sunshine when subject to perpendicular radiation. It was left behind and is still there today! What a joke!
To take off from the Moon and to dock with CSM Columbia are very complicated according to Floyd V. Bennett.
The ascent trajectory is however very simple; a the right time and location at ground zero on the Moon and with the CSM Columbia in the right location above, the LM Eagle ascent stage lifts off at 90° perpendicular pitch. Then altitude and speed are increased and pitch is reduced to 0° in orbit at the correct altitude. As you accelerate with one engine, you have to change the pitch all the time (from 90 to 0°) until you arrive just adjacent to CSM Columbia for docking in orbit at an altitude about 100.000 m As CSM Columbia has speed 1 500 m/s you must ensure your start at the right time! If you start a minute too late you will arrive 90 kilometers behind the CSM Columbia and docking is difficult.
The ascent stage is the upper part of the LM:
At departure from the Moon Buzz is standing up to pilot the thing while Armstrong is sitting on the rocket engine!
The LM ascent stage -
mass 4 888 kg - lifted off straight up
from the Moon at 17:54:01 UT on 21 July after 21
hours, 36 minutes on the lunar surface (1) in
picture right. The rocket engine suddenly
applied 14.7 kN constant thrust, while
burning about 4.5 kg fuel per second ejecting about
5 m3 exhaust at 1
400 or 4 000 m/s velocity for 508 seconds. Imagine
a 1.5 ton force suddenly being applied to a 4.9 ton
initial mass. It means the initial acceleration was
a small 0.3 m/s² at the beginning slowly
getting faster. That is the lift-off from
the Moon. It seems 2 285 kg fuel
(4 966 lb of total 5 328 lb aboard
) was used to produce 14.7 kN thrust
during 508 seconds - SFC = 0.306 kg/kN s. Why not?
But where was it stored? It was about half the mass
of the whole LM ascent stage. After lift-off the the LM
turned around the Moon looking for the CSM
high above. We do not know how the LM
found the CSM at an altitude of about 100
000 m to be able to dock with it. Luckily the LM didn't
ascend in the wrong direction but straight up, and
flow 560° around the Moon finding the
CSM flying by at 1 500 m/s at
100 000 m altitude ... and connected to or
docked with the CSM at 1 500 m/s
speed. Quite impressive. This Buzz pilot was
very clever! Of course he was never on the
The LM ascent stage - mass 4 888 kg - lifted off straight up from the Moon at 17:54:01 UT on 21 July after 21 hours, 36 minutes on the lunar surface (1) in picture right.
The rocket engine suddenly applied 14.7 kN constant thrust, while burning about 4.5 kg fuel per second ejecting about 5 m3 exhaust at 1 400 or 4 000 m/s velocity for 508 seconds. Imagine a 1.5 ton force suddenly being applied to a 4.9 ton initial mass. It means the initial acceleration was a small 0.3 m/s² at the beginning slowly getting faster. That is the lift-off from the Moon. It seems 2 285 kg fuel (4 966 lb of total 5 328 lb aboard ) was used to produce 14.7 kN thrust during 508 seconds - SFC = 0.306 kg/kN s. Why not? But where was it stored? It was about half the mass of the whole LM ascent stage.
After lift-off the the LM turned around the Moon looking for the CSM high above.
We do not know how the LM found the CSM at an altitude of about 100 000 m to be able to dock with it.
Luckily the LM didn't ascend in the wrong direction but straight up, and flow 560° around the Moon finding the CSM flying by at 1 500 m/s at 100 000 m altitude ... and connected to or docked with the CSM at 1 500 m/s speed. Quite impressive. This Buzz pilot was very clever! Of course he was never on the Moon.
2 285 kg (of 2 639 kg) fuel carried in the LM was used for the 100 000 m ascent and increase in speed from vertical 0 m/s at ground to 1 500 m/s in orbit.
How the ascending LM managed to find the CSM in orbit at the right altitude - 100 000 m - and speed and to arrive at the CSM at the same speed and to dock with the CSM is better forgotten. Such a fantastic operation was not possible 1969. Floyd V. Bennett didn't really explain it at all.
How much energy was required to get the 4.888/2 603 kg LM ascent unit into orbit again at 100 000 m altitude and 1 500 m/s velocity can be calculated and should be of the order 4-5 GJ
As 2 285 kg fuel was used to overcome 4-5 GJ energy, 1 kg of fuel produced 1.75- 2.2 MJ energy; fuel consumption 1.75-2.2 MJ/kg. It is quite close to the consumption 2.47 MJ/kg for the descent. But still much less efficient than the SM engine.
Total fuel used by the LM for descent and ascent was 10 237 kg according .
The LM ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit at 00:01:01 UT on 22 July and remained in lunar orbit, where it (and five others jettisoned later) should still be today as there is no friction stopping it.
Trans-Earth injection of the CSM, mass now 16 829 kg (37 100 lb) in Moon orbit began July 21 as the P-22KS rocket engine with 97.400 N thrust fired for two-and-a-half minutes (150 seconds), when Columbia was behind (?) the moon in its 59th hour of lunar orbit. The CSM had flipped back 180° with its nose now aiming for location X and later Earth and its upper atmosphere/thermosphere.
The picture below is of course misleading. Earth and Moon are much smaller and the trajectory in between is much, much longer. To avoid hitting Earth Bull eye and arriving a little off, e.g. at 120 000 m altitude of the thermosphere, the angle of approach differs minimally. But it is not easy to hit Earth at all. If you leave the Moon too early or late you will never reach location X and will never reach location B in Earth orbit.
The asstronots were thus facing forward during the trans-Earth injection leaving location A. Their conversation between 135 hrs 23 minutes and 135 hrs 27 minutes of the flight, when they were subject to 6 m/s² acceleration was quite normal or nominal.
At the exact right time/location A/direction in Kepler Moon orbit the speed increased from 1.500 m/s to 2.400 m/s at average acceleration 6.00 m/s² (!), while the CSM displaced 292 500 m (or 2.51% of the lunar-orbit circumference 11 643 000 m after a final turn of 9.04° out of the Moon orbit) and placed the CSM into a course, first to the location X in space and from there, back to Earth upper, very thin atmosphere/thermosphere and location B. Details how it was done are evidently not available. X is where Earth and Moon gravity forces are equal.
The speed, direction and total momentum after trans-Earth injection must be perfect, so that the CSM gets away from Moon gravity and is attracted by Earth gravity at the right time/location X, so it will arrive tangentially at the Earth upper atmosphere/thermosphere a couple of days later at location B for re-entry.
If not you may miss Earth completely or arrive at too steep an arrival angle at location B and crash on Earth.
The orbit of the Moon is also inclined about 5° to the ecliptic so the probably parabolic trajectory A-X-B is really in 3-D, while the speed and direction changes more and more all the time when approaching Earth. The speed is minimum at X and the direction then changes all the time towards Earth (and its centre of gravity).
How this complex maneuvre and trajectory took place is not really clear. Earth gravity force pulls you towards the centre of Earth and not towards a location B at 120.000 m altitude above ground in a horizontal direction. How can you calculate the arrival time at B with so many variables (Moon pulling you back, Earth pulling you forward and Sun pulling you towards the Sun) involved? And how can you identify the location of B, so you arrive there at the right time in the right directions left/right and up/down? B is at the same time rotating around the Earth poles 360° every 24 hours!
After Events # 14 and 15 CSM mass was 12 153 kg (or 26 793 lb) because 4 676 kg of fuel was burnt to get away from location A in Moon orbit to location X in space.
The speed after trans-Earth injection was maybe 2 640 m/s. But in what directions? Everything is unclear. The Moon was at this time still orbiting around the Earth at 1 023 m/s speed, so one way or another the CSM had to reduce that tangential speed in Moon orbit to 0. It would appear they got away from behind or aft side the Moon into the radial course towards Earth, while the Moon continued its circular, orbital course around Earth. Who knows? Evidently the CSM had to reduce the orbital/circular speed orbiting Earth at Moon altitude to 0 and just get a radial speed away from Moon towards location X in space and location B in orbit around Earth. It is quite complicated to navigate in space, when the islands or moons are moving all the time, and frankly speaking I do not understand how it is done in detail. Only 3D velocity records using Sun (fixed) as base and none are available.
The distance travelled during the 150 seconds trans-Earth injection - you have to get out of orbit around the Moon at exactly the right moment and location A and into a radial trajectory towards location X and then Earth overcoming Moon gravity force - was only 292 500 meter (assuming Moon didn't move but during 150 seconds the Moon evidently displaced 153 450 meters).
It looks like you only need an average force of ~57 000 N or 6 ton to do this maneuver, so maybe the rocket engine was not on full blast? Or you put on full blast 97.4 kN during 150 seconds and reached 3 038 m/s start speed (56.1 GJ kinetic energy) getting home? The home leg was apparently faster due to greater departure speed ... but then the arrival speed at location B will also be greater. So you arrive too early. In the wrong place!
The amount of fuel used on the CSM for acceleration events # 14 and 15 was 4 676 kg or 31 kg/s! Same consumption actually when braking (events #5 and 6), i.e. same thrust was used for shorter duration as the mass was smaller.
The CSM kinetic energy before trans-Earth injection was 16829*1500²/2 = 18.93 GJ and after trans-Earth injection 12153*2 640²/2 = 42.35 GJ, i.e. change in kinetic energy due trans-Earth injection was 23.42 GJ. As 4 676 kg fuel was used, 1 kg of fuel produced 5.00 MJ kinetic energy. The SFC was 4676/(97.4*150)=0.32 kg/kN s. Why not?
If you ask Google 2015 how it was done, there is no answer.
 has little to say about it:
"The trans Earth injection maneuver, the last service propulsion engine firing of the flight, was nominal". [1-4.17]
Following this nominal maneuver, the asstronuts (!) slept for about 10 hours (while passing location X). They were tired!
An 11.2 second firing of the control engines accomplished the only midcourse correction required on the return flight but not reported in  - Event # 16. The correction was made July 22 at about 150 hours, 30 minutes into the mission. Willy forgot to report it.
During the return from location X speed increased all the time due to Earth gravity. Earth gravity pulls you all the time towards the centre of Earth (and not a location B 120 000 m above a rotating Earth).
The return trip took only 55 hours 20 minutes (or 199 200 seconds), so the average return speed to travel 384 000 000 meters was 1.928 m/s. It seems the asstronots wanted to get back quick. Of course the spacecraft had less mass on the return trip ... but Earth gravity didn't change for that, but maybe departure speed from Moon orbit was 3 038 m/s (and not 2 640 m/s or whatever). Just prior arrival Earth upper atmosphere the Service Module, mass about 6 667 kg was dumped and burnt up in the atmosphere and was never seen again. There are no further details about the Service Module.
The objective was now to arrive at the Earth upper atmosphere almost horizontally or parallel with ground below and find location B to plunge into the atmosphere and start the final part of the trip - re-entry at exactly the right moment. You must arrive at location B at the exact time because location B moves 360° during 24 hrs. If you arrive early or late, Earth below is not in the expected position.
But before that something else:
How to turn around 180° in space is confusingly described by NASA about the failed Apollo 13 mission. Then the service module, SM, was damaged on way to the Moon. A fuel tank exploded and 18 500 kg of fuel there could not be used. Tough luck. Apollo 13 CSM could apparently not be used to (1) slow down/brake the spacecraft with lunar module, LM, to get into Moon orbit (Events #5 and 6), (2) to accelerate the spacecraft without lunar module, LM, to get out of Moon orbit (after the Moon visit by the LM - Events #14 and 15) and back to Earth and (3) provide electricity to the command module, CM, all the time.
The asstronuts were not informed that they didn't have to worry at all. They were in an elliptic orbit with apoapsis or apocenter 384 000 km from Earth and would return from there automatically by gravity.
The unlucky asstronuts therefore boarded the lunar module as a 'life boat' and stayed there, while the spacecraft managed to turn 180° around and get back into direction Earth with the LM still attached. One question was could the LM rocket descent engine with 46.7 kN thrust be used to get the 43 802 kg Apollo 13 back to Earth, e.g burn all the descent engine fuel and see what happens. First you evidently drop off the damaged 23 244 kg (or 23 244 kg ) service module (SM).
Then your spacecraft CM+LM has mass about 20 500 kg. What is your velocity away from Earth? 1 000 m/s? Can the LM descent stage rocket engines 46.7 kN thrust stop the CM+LM and bring it into direction towards Earth forgetting the Moon? The LM descent stage carried 8 212 kg of fuel. The dry mass of the LM ascent stage was 2 180 kg and it held 2 639 kg (or 2 353 kg) of propellant but it could not be used.
Say that you use all 8 212 kg descent stage fuel and that it produces 1 MJ/kg energy, i.e. you have total 8.212 GJ energy to play with. The 20 500 kg spacecraft at 1 000 m/s speed has 20 500x1000²/2 = 10.25 GJ kinetic start energy, so it seems you can hardly stop at all and get a push back towards Earth using the descent stage engine.
NASA therefore suggested that a free 180° return trajectory was used.
A free return trajectory is apparently quite simple, if you happen to be by luck between Earth and Moon and very close to the Moon. Instead of braking to 0 m/s still under Earth gravity control to location X and drop back to Earth by its gravity force that requires a lot of, maybe 10 GJ energy (see above) that you do not carry with you, you just steer your spacecraft - Apollo 13 - at the right speed to a fair (?) distance ahead of the Moon that moves at 1 023 m/s speed and then swing exactly 180° or more around the Moon using its gravity force - a gravity assisted kick - and then you get away from the Moon, while being under Earth gravity again, i.e. the Moon gravity does increase your velocity while also changes your direction 180°, blah, blah. One question is could the LM descent engine steer the 20 500 kg CM+LM spacecraft to the right position off the moving Moon. How much fuel was actually used for that maneuver, NASA cannot tell! Imagine your moving spacecraft - Apollo 13 - is suddenly attracted by moving Moon gravity that swings you around 180° and then Moon gravity stops and Earth gravity takes over again. Magic!
It is the famous problem to calculate the gravitational forces between four objects in space with different masses - Sun, Earth, Moon and Apollo 11 or 13 - and to see what happens. To solve it when the four objects are stationary is difficult, to solve it, when two objects - Moon and Apollo 11 or 13 - move relative each other and relative Earth (assumed fix), is impossible. When the Moon's gravity force on Apollo 11 is greater than the Earth's gravity force on Apollo 11, Apollo 11 evidently accelerated towards the Moon and may have crashed unless being steered or braking into orbit around the moving Moon orbiting Earth as originally planned applying a brake force (as outlined above Events #5 and 6). It may work ... if you have enough fuel.
For Apollo 13 it was another maneuver! It was suggested that the momentum of Apollo13 kept Apollo 13 moving away from the moving Moon and that the gravity force of the Moon just permitted Apollo 13 to swing around the moving Moon 180° - at variable speed - and that then, suddenly, Earth gravity force took over (forget location X) and pulled Apollo 13 straight back towards Earth (at increasing speed), while the Moon continued orbiting Earth at 1 023 m/s speed. What a performance. Sitting in the LM doing it! Sorry, I do not believe it was possible. It is a typical NASA SF invention! See also above how the ESA spacecraft Rosetta managed to do it 2005-2009.
Had the spacecraft missed to use Moon gravity for a free +180° swing, Apollo 13 would have continued out in space somewhere and stopped taking weeks to drop back on Earth.
Another alternative would thus have been to miss the Moon completely and allow Earth gravity to slow you down until velocity is 0 m/s, when you automatically drop back on Earth. But it may have taken a couple of weeks and you would starve to death in the meantime.
At arrival Earth the lunar (LM) module was dropped off to burn up in Earth's atmosphere we are told, while the Apollo 13 CM landed peacefully similar to Apollo 11 CM described below. I have a distinct feeling the whole Apollo 13 show was another SF fantasy. The incident of the exploding fuel tank and the miraculous free return trajectory was later investigated, by, i.a. Neil Armstrong , the first asstronuthole on the Moon and thus a real clown.
Cosmic particles were suspected inside the CM on the return trip (but not on the way to the Moon?):
"The theory assumes that numerous heavy and high-energy cosmic particles penetrate the command module structure, causing heavy ionization inside the spacecraft. When liberated electrons recombine with ions, photons in the visible portion of the spectrum are emitted. If a sufficient number of photons are emitted, a dark-adapted observer could detect the photons as a small spot or a streak of light." [1-4.18]
The cosmic particles didn't disturb our asstronut heroes though. They were ready for re-entry.
If a spacecraft like Apollo 11 was elliptically orbiting Earth like a comet, it would arrive at the perihon at Earth at 300 km altitude and swing around there at 11 200 m/s speed and fly back to the apihon 384 000 km away. But it didn't happen.
Re-entry procedures were initiated July 24, 44 hours after leaving lunar orbit. That re-entry is not possible at all was already explained in section 1.7 above but here follows the NASA description of the Apollo 11 re-entry. You can also study it here. Re-entry was fully automatic done by some mysterious auto-pilot controlled by a magic, 1969 computer! It is pure propaganda based on pseudoscience:
The SM - event #17 - was dumped from the CM, which continued alone at speed about 11 200 m/s or 11 045 m/s (or about 36.200 ft/s ) and was re-oriented to a heat-shield-forward position.
Now the Apollo 11 CM was ready to enter the upper atmosphere of planet Earth 120 000 m further down more or less parallel at location B with the ground below - event #18 and to descend down through the atmosphere - re-entry - and deploy parachutes about nine minutes later and land in the water. If you arrive too steep say >4° you will hit ground or the ocean too early.
How this change of altitude in space only due to influence of Earth gravity really took place and how to locate the latitude and longitude of location B and arrive there at speed >11 000 m/s at the exact time have never been explained by NASA. Of course.
No fuel was used since the 'course correction' event #16.
But how can you change altitude in orbit around Earth at perihon without reducing speed by firing a rocket engine to slow down?
My friend Balthasar Schmitt has pointed out the following maneuvers:
Nach NASA-Angaben hatte das Command Module (CM) eine Masse (Gewicht) von 5 486 kg und eine Geschwindigkeit von 11.200 m/sec. Daraus errechnet sich seine kinetische Energie nach der Formel Newtons: E (in Joule) = 0,5 x Masse (in kg) x Quadrat der Geschwindigkeit (in m/sec), E = 0,5 x 5 486 x 11 200² = 345 GigaJoule
So the kinetic energy of Apollo 11 CM at Re-entry at location B corresponds to 345 ICE trains driving around on the German railways at only 250 km/hr speed. And now air friction is supposed to stop the CM during 9 minutes!
It is suggested that Earth gravity just increased the speed >14 times (!) and direction of the CSM during the return trajectory from departure the Moon gravity influence at location X - speed say 790 m/s - until arriving almost horizontally at the Earth thermosphere at location B at speed >11.000 m/s. But Earth gravity was attracting the CSM straight towards the centre of Earth all the time ... and not horizontally towards the upper part of the atmosphere! And at the same time planet Earth was rotating.
If you arrive a minute too early or to late at location B, you are >660.000 m off target. And how do you find location B at 120.000 m altitude?
It must be repeated! The picture below is of course misleading. Earth and Moon are much smaller and the distance in between is much, much longer. To avoid hitting Earth Bull eye and arriving a little off, e.g. at 120 000 m altitude of the thermosphere, the angle of approach differs minimally. But I would expect that location B is on top of the Earth and not hidden behind Earth, etc, etc.
"The Apollo-CM was designed using incorrect pitching moments determined through inaccurate real-gas modeling. The Apollo-CM's trim-angle angle of attack (!) was higher than originally estimated, resulting in a narrower lunar return entry corridor",
NASA told us later. In spite of this Apollo 11 CM managed to get down in one piece. If forward was towards ground or towards the horizon is conveniently forgotten, but to make the rest possible, it was towards the horizon.
The blunt design produces the
drag necessary to efficiently dissipate the kinetic
energy associated with entry velocity of the lunar
return mission, we are told. Note that the
CM had a little side window so that the
asstronuts could see out. At entry into Earth
amazing NASA document - 100% science
fiction) was as follows (and had been tested
full-scale before without pilots) all controlled
by a robot or computer: Or right: you enter at
m) altitude and
m) from BET at
B and plunge down to
m) altitude and
m) from BET at unknown time. The angle down is
thus about 4.6° and the vertical speed
vector is originally 885 m/s. If you plunge
m at that speed, the plunge takes 75
seconds. But apparently you slow down so maybe the
initial plunge takes longer? Say 80-90 seconds.
Then you bounce up (!!) about
m), while travelling another about 800
m) towards BET. The angle up is thus about
0.7°. Etc., etc. You never bounce up
into space again. You are just bouncing in
the upper atmosphere. But what do you bounce
against? The CM down-up-down
trajectory in the thermo- and mesosphere was maybe
something like shown right (the 1967 Apollo 4 test
The blunt design produces the drag necessary to efficiently dissipate the kinetic energy associated with entry velocity of the lunar return mission, we are told. Note that the CM had a little side window so that the asstronuts could see out. At entry into Earth atmosphere entry control (an amazing NASA document - 100% science fiction) was as follows (and had been tested full-scale before without pilots) all controlled by a robot or computer:
Or right: you enter at 400.000 ft (~120.000 m) altitude and 2.200 n.mi. (~4.000.000 m) from BET at location B and plunge down to 180.000 ft (~55.000 m) altitude and 1.750 n.mi. (~3.240.000 m) from BET at unknown time. The angle down is thus about 4.6° and the vertical speed vector is originally 885 m/s. If you plunge about 67.000 m at that speed, the plunge takes 75 seconds. But apparently you slow down so maybe the initial plunge takes longer? Say 80-90 seconds. Then you bounce up (!!) about 60.000 ft (~18.000 m), while travelling another about 800 n.mi. (~1.500.000 m) towards BET. The angle up is thus about 0.7°. Etc., etc. You never bounce up into space again. You are just bouncing in the upper atmosphere. But what do you bounce against?
The CM down-up-down trajectory in the thermo- and mesosphere was maybe something like shown right (the 1967 Apollo 4 test run).
Dropping anything from 46 000 m with vertical start speed 0 will result in vertical speed >700 m/s at 20 000 m altitude 73 seconds later (ignoring friction) due to 9.82 m/s² gravity. No parachute can stop something dropping at >700 m/s speed. It is more than twice the speed of sound!
How the velocity is reduced due to friction and how a lift force is developed to lift the CM 180.000 ft (~55.000 m) after only 80-90 seconds in the very thin thermo- and mesosphere at speeds >6.000 m/s, how the 'trim angle' is adjusted, how rotations of the module around itself is prevented and how the lift force is modified during the various initial/upcontrol/final entry phases are not clear at all. The figures seem to be the NASA's usually confusing, contradictory, fantasy ones.
The deceleration and splash down on Earth is quite strange. The CM with mass m9 or 5 557 (or 5 960) kg (the SM has just been dropped off) arrives at location B and plunges into the Earth very thin thermosphere (event #18) at 7/24/69 16.21.14 UT with 11.034 m/s entry speed (same speed you need to go to the Moon in the first place!) due to strong Earth gravity during 2 days or 90% of the distance from Moon and all potential energy (distance from Earth) is transformed into kinetic energy and velocity 11 034 m/s at location B.
The direction is not known, but it is not
vertical, because then you crash after ~10 seconds. No, you
arrive almost horizontally. It seems Apollo 4
plunged in at 4.6° and then bounced up at
0.7°. Only the drag force brakes the module for
560 seconds, when, after 9 minutes from entry at
location B, first the drag and then the main
parachutes were deployed at low speed and the CM
splashes down 29 minutes and 21 seconds (?) after entry
(7/24/69 16.50.35 UT) in the Pacific just outside
California or Hawaii or somewhere. You are heading straight
ahead all the time toward the awaiting aircraft carrier with
the POTUS aboard.
Let's assume that parachutes
were deployed when the speed was only 134
m/s. It means total speed reduction
was 10 900 m/s during 560 seconds.
The CM thus decelerated at average a =
18.93 m/s² or about 2g while bouncing
down/up/down in the mesosphere. The drag force
acting on the CM was thus 105 106 Newton
or about 10.7 tons. The average speed of the
CM during braking was 5 450 m/s and
the distance from starting braking at location
B and deploying parachutes was
meters - see above. After travelling
kms mostly through the mesosphere, the
CM dropped down just in front of a US
warship with Dick Nixon aboard. Hole in one! It
sounds magic. According 
Apollo 11 entered the atmosphere at latitude
3.19°S, longitude 171.96°E
(location B) at 195:03:05 h/m/s with
m/s and deployed the drogue parachute at latitude
13.25°S, longitude 169.16°W
at 195:12:06 h/m/s, i.e. 9 minutes and 1
second later total 541 seconds). The
distance travelled was then only
meters, i.e. the average speed was only
m/s. Who cares? Imagine travelling so long so fast
and braking all the time by some magic force
- probably variable - of the mean order about 1.6 g
(15.62 m/s²). According http://history.NASA.gov/ap11fj/26day9-re-entry.htm
the Apollo 11 CM lost contact
with Houston at 195:03:06 h/m/s (after
start), when speed was 10 970 m/s and
re-established contact at 195:12:31 h/m/s,
i.e. 565 seconds less than 10 minutes later,
when the chutes were up and speed was nominal
Let's assume that parachutes were deployed when the speed was only 134 m/s.
It means total speed reduction was 10 900 m/s during 560 seconds. The CM thus decelerated at average a = 18.93 m/s² or about 2g while bouncing down/up/down in the mesosphere. The drag force acting on the CM was thus 105 106 Newton or about 10.7 tons.
The average speed of the CM during braking was 5 450 m/s and the distance from starting braking at location B and deploying parachutes was 2.100 n.mi. or 3.900.000 meters - see above. After travelling >3.900 kms mostly through the mesosphere, the CM dropped down just in front of a US warship with Dick Nixon aboard. Hole in one! It sounds magic.
According  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11MIssionReport_1971015566.pdf Apollo 11 entered the atmosphere at latitude 3.19°S, longitude 171.96°E (location B) at 195:03:05 h/m/s with speed ~11.000 m/s and deployed the drogue parachute at latitude 13.25°S, longitude 169.16°W at 195:12:06 h/m/s, i.e. 9 minutes and 1 second later total 541 seconds). The distance travelled was then only 2.287.000 meters, i.e. the average speed was only 4.227 m/s. Who cares? Imagine travelling so long so fast and braking all the time by some magic force - probably variable - of the mean order about 1.6 g (15.62 m/s²).
According http://history.NASA.gov/ap11fj/26day9-re-entry.htm the Apollo 11 CM lost contact with Houston at 195:03:06 h/m/s (after start), when speed was 10 970 m/s and re-established contact at 195:12:31 h/m/s, i.e. 565 seconds less than 10 minutes later, when the chutes were up and speed was nominal <30 m/s.
An interesting but really stupid 2013 M.Sc. thesis of the 1967 Apollo 4 re-entry is the following: NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE APOLLO 4 RE-ENTRY TRAJECTORY. It is a thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Mechanical engineering by Ermioni Papadopoulou, who correctly says:
The most dangerous phase of an Earth return mission is the atmospheric re-entry stage, in which immense velocities along with extensive interaction with the gaseous atmosphere create an environment that changes the flow state around the probe. The atmospheric re-entry (at location B) is associated with velocities up to 12 km/s, thus, the recorded flight Mach numbers can be as high as 30 and more.
Apollo 4 was not a real Earth return mission. Apollo 4 was just sent up into very low Earth orbit for a couple of orbits, then it was first sent 17.218.000 m and later 18.092.000 m up into space to drop down for a re-entry at 122 000 m altitude at 11 139 m/s velocity (if you believe the NASA fantasies?) and a landing 10 (!) minutes later:
The launch placed the S-IVB and CSM into a nearly circular 100-nautical-mile (190 km) orbit, a nominal parking orbit that would be used on the actual lunar missions. After two orbits, the S-IVB reignited for the first time, putting the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 9,297 nautical miles (17,218 km) and a perigee that would deliberately take it 45.7 nautical miles (84.6 km) below the Earth's surface; this would ensure both a high-speed re-entry of the Command Module, and atmospheric re-entry and destruction of the S-IVB. The CSM then separated from the S-IVB and fired its Service Module engine to raise the apogee to 9,769 nautical miles (18,092 km) and a perigee of ~40 nautical miles (~74 km). After passing apogee, the Service Module engine fired again for 281 seconds to increase re-entry speed to 36,545 feet per second (11,139 m/s), at an altitude of 400,000 feet (122 km) and a flight path angle of -6.93 degrees (?), simulating a return from the Moon.
Then Apollo 4 arrived exactly at location B and a few minutes later Apollo 4 had landed. Magic.
Apollo 8 took totally 29 minutes from entering atmosphere at 11 040 m/s velocity at location B until splash down hole in one at 0 m/s velocity just beside a recovery ship!
Separation of the command module, or CM, from the SM occurred at 146 hours, 31 minutes. A double-skip maneuver conducted during the re-entry steering phase (starting at location B) resulted in an altitude gain of 25,000 to 30,000 feet. The re-entry velocity was 24,696 mph (11 040 m/s), with heat shield temperatures reaching 5,000 degrees F (2 760C). Parachute deployment and other re-entry events were nominal. Apollo 8 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean at 10:51 a.m. EST Dec. 27. The splashdown was about 5,100 yards from the recovery ship USS Yorktown, 147 hours after launch and precisely on time.
Here the bounce up (double-skip) was only 9.000 m but it didn't affect the end result. Magic! Nominal magic! Hole in one!
Ermioni Papadopoulou shows how easy it is. The CM just slows down very quickly by friction and turbulence drag forces applied on the CM in the atmosphere. He, sadly and unfortunately, believes any NASA fairy tale.
Apollo 11 CM went also straight down and landed! If it took 10 or 18 minutes between arriving location B and deploying parachutes is not known. Contact was lost, blah, blah.
On Earth the atmosphere is quite complex
with its various layers:
The troposphere begins at
the surface and extends to between 9 km at the
poles and 17 km at the equator, with some variation
due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by
transfer of energy from the surface, so on average
the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and
temperature decreases with altitude. The tropopause
is the boundary between the troposphere and
stratosphere. The stratosphere extends from
the tropopause to about 50 km. Temperature
increases with altitude due to increased absorption
of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, which
restricts turbulence and mixing. The stratopause is
the boundary between stratosphere and the
mesosphere. The mesosphere extends
from the stratopause to 85 km. It is the layer
where most meteors burn up upon entering the very
thin low pressure atmosphere and lack of
The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 9 km at the poles and 17 km at the equator, with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 50 km. Temperature increases with altitude due to increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, which restricts turbulence and mixing. The stratopause is the boundary between stratosphere and the mesosphere.
The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 85 km. It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the very thin low pressure atmosphere and lack of mass/atoms.
Such braking is evidently not possible. You have to first, like the fantasy Shuttle or the ISS return modules (see below) be in orbit around the Earth or braking for it (using fuel) and then slowly decelerate/brake again using force for several days to stop at all without burning to Hell like a meteor ... or the SM due to friction. Basic. It doesn't matter what angle you re-enter the atmosphere. Friction heat will burn you into smoke and gas like all meteors dropping down on Earth as already explained in the part 0.7 of this article.
The unit kinetic energy (J/kg) at 11 031 m/s is 60.84 MJ/kg! It is a lot! It - the energy of one kilogram moving at 11 031 m/s - is sufficient to raise temperature of 1 kg concrete (C = 880 J/kgC) 69 138C.
Regardless, NASA has never been able to define the latitude and longitude of location B and how it can establish the final trajectory through the atmosphere to determine the location, where parachutes are deployed. A small error in arrival time and initial direction always results in you dropping down far away from the target area.
How to stop a mass of 5 486 kg dropping on Earth all the way from Moon and still accelerated by the gravity force?
The vehicle encounters such severe heating that a significant part of the design and development effort is concerned with providing sufficient protection of the payload without using all payload capacity for doing this!
Just dropping one kilogram from one meter height or altitude through Earth's atmosphere of air produces a big bang, when it impacts Earth at 4.43 m/s a fraction of a second later. Do not drop it on - your toes! NASA has not really been able to clarify how the heat shield friction or modulus turbulence braking causing drag really worked. Test runs were apparently done before, e.g. Apollo 4. It is important to arrive almost tangentially at the Earth upper atmosphere (at location B) and in the right direction to allow the atmosphere to slow you down one way or another.
Recently a mad person with mass 90 kg + 40 kg gear jumped from just 38 000 meters altitude with start velocity 0 m/s. After a minute his vertical velocity was >350 m/s due gravity alone because of little friction and turbulence and it was only due to atmosphere getting denser at <15 000 m altitude that he slowed down and could eject a parachute.
Imagine an Apollo module of 5 486 kg coming from the Moon dropping into Earth's atmosphere (at location B) with almost vertical start direction/velocity 11.200 m/s at 120 000 m altitude, where the atmosphere is very, very thin producing very little friction and turbulence. Planet Earth gravity has attracted the module since it left the Moon. The module would then hit ground after only 10 seconds!
As this didn't happen we are told that the Apollo module, one way or another, entered the atmosphere at 120 000 m altitude almost horizontally/tangentially or with little (4-5°) inclination downwards and also in the right direction forward and time at location B. How this could happen is not clear. You would expect Earth gravity to attract the CM to the centre of Earth, so it arrives more vertically at the upper atmosphere. But it didn't happen. The CM arrived more or less horizontally to skim on the upper atmosphere.
The potential and kinetic energy of a 5 486 kg Apollo module at 100 000 m altitude and 11 200 m/s velocity is 5 486*(100 000*9.8 + (11 200)²/2) = 349 458 200 kJ.
The potential and kinetic energy of the same 5 486 kg Apollo module at say 15 000 m altitude and 350 m/s velocity is 5 486*(15.000*9.8 + (350)²/2) = 1 142 560 kJ.
The difference 348 315 640 kJ has been absorbed one way or another by the heat shield AVCOAT.
If such AVCOAT can absorb 418 680.0 kJ/kg before getting vaporized, it seems you need 832 kg of AVCOAT in the Apollo heat shield. To be on the safe side, you need say 2 400 kg, but then 44% of the module is AVCOAT and there is no space for any human heroes.
Question is - how can anything absorb 418 680.0 kJ/kg heat up in thin thermo-mesosphere/space?
It seems the specific heat of AVCOAT plastic is 1.67 kJ/kgK. Say that the AVCOAT melts at about 520 ºK but that it has temperature say -3C (270 K) in space at re-entry. It means that it will melt at temperature 250C. It means that 1 kg of AVCOAT can only absorb 418 kJ before it starts to melt (and flow away), i.e. 1/1000 of amount for it to be vaporized!
It seems the Apollo heat shield will melt very easily and then become useless. In my opinion any "heat shield" is just part of the human space travel hoax.
Furthermore, there is really no evidence that you can slow down a spacecraft totally 10 850 m/s during say 1 000 seconds (10.85 m/s² !) in the very thin thermo-mesosphere between 100 000 and 50 000 m altitude, where meteors are vaporized.
the re-entry went even faster: the Apollo 11 CM
lost contact with Houston at 195:03:06 hrs (after
start), when speed was 10 970 m/s and
re-established contact at 195:12:31 hrs, i.e. 565
seconds less than 10 minutes later, when the chutes were
up and speed was nominal <30 m/s. It would appear that
the CM travelled about
meters from location B in that time, while
decelerating at 19.36 m/s². Splash down was at
195:18:18 hrs. The CM dropped down just in
front of the reception team. Magic! Hole in one! Let's
Parachute deployment occurred at 195 hours, 13 minutes, at low speed, say ~100 m/s. After a flight of 195 hours, 18 minutes, 35 seconds - about 36 minutes longer (!) than planned - Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, just 13 miles from the recovery ship USS Hornet with US president 'tricky Dick' Nixon aboard south of Hawaii. Event # 18. Conversation with tricky Dick later was nominal.
Actually anything entering Earth atmosphere at ~11 000 m/s in any direction immediately burns up and becomes gas, smoke ... nothing but atoms unless the forces acting on the object breaks it into small pieces ... that burn up.
And in 36 minutes planet Earth rotates 9° around itself and location B is shifted far away.
Except an Apollo 11 Command Module with three asstronots + a little heat shield wanting to have a shower or swim in the ocean, chat with president Nixon and tell the world about it at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ifx0Yx8vlrY and http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=BI_ZehPOMwl .
It looks as if they are not telling the truth.
But God must have assisted or as Lt. Comdr. John A. Piirto, USN Chaplain concluded:
"Let us pray. Lord, God, our Heavenly Father. Our minds are staggered and our spirit exalted with the magnitude and precision of this entire Apollo 11 mission. We have spent the past week in communal anxiety and hope as our astronauts sped through the glories and dangers of the heavens. As we try to understand and analyze the scope of this achievement for human life, our reason is overwhelmed with abounding gratitude and joy, even as we realize the increasing challenges of the future. This magnificent event illustrates anew what man can accomplish when purpose is firm and intent corporate. A man on the Moon was promised in this decade. And, though some were unconvinced, the reality is with us this morning, in the persons of astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins. We applaud their splendid exploits and we pour out our thanksgiving for their safe return to us, to their families, to all mankind. From our inmost beings, we sing humble, yet exuberant praise. May the great effort and commitment seen in this project, Apollo, inspire our lives to move similarly in other areas of need. May we the people by our enthusiasm and devotion and insight move to new landings in brotherhood, human concern, and mutual respect. May our country, afire with inventive leadership and backed by a committed followership, blaze new trails into all areas of human cares. See our enthusiasm and bless our joy with dedicated purpose for the many needs at hand. Link us in friendship with peoples throughout the world as we strive together to better the human condition. Grant us peace, beginning in our own hearts, and a mind attuned with good will toward our neighbor. All this we pray as our thanksgiving rings out to Thee. In the name of our Lord, amen."
What a stupid show! And people believe it! There were total six Apollo CM re-entries and later three Skylab (left) re-entries using Apollo CMs. All fake of course.
Apollo 11 landed, we are told, at 13 degrees, 19 minutes north latitude and 169 degrees, nine minutes west longitude July 24, 1969. Or was it outside California? Nobody knows! NASA says they were 36 minutes late! All above is NASA SF fantasy and propaganda = lies! A heat shield reduces speed from 11 200 to 100 m/s in Earth's atmosphere in 10 minutes? Not possible. It is worse than the 1961 Gagarin hoax by the USSR.
Neither the CM nor the LM had any toilet facilities during the 195+ hours trip. We are supposed to believe that the crew pissed and shit in a pot, content of which then was thrown into a bag after each use, unless they shit in the space suits when on the Moon. However, when the CM was recovered in the water, there was no trace of any bag of shit and piss in it.
From a simple fuel (energy)
analysis point of view it seems the Apollo 11
modules, SM, CM and LM, could never stop at the
Moon in the first place and therefore could never
return. It is a clear indication that the whole
NASA Apollo program was a hoax by stupid science
fiction writers paid by NASA ... to impress people
1969. Maybe only an empty CM was launched into
Earth orbit (event #1) by a Saturn rocket at
m/s velocity and then the empty CM was orbiting
Earth say 93-98 times to keep some NASA engineers
happy, while the false Moon trip was broadcasted
live on TV. The false CM then burnt up at re-entry.
The real CM was simply dropped from an airplane at
low altitude and never was in space or at location
B at all ... . Footage and sound from Moon
of LM and asstronots stepping down into 120C hot
Moon soil, planting flag and fooling around were
just a Hollywood 911
movie broadcasted to confuse people. It is very
easy to fake photos and voices for
From a simple fuel (energy) analysis point of view it seems the Apollo 11 modules, SM, CM and LM, could never stop at the Moon in the first place and therefore could never return. It is a clear indication that the whole NASA Apollo program was a hoax by stupid science fiction writers paid by NASA ... to impress people 1969. Maybe only an empty CM was launched into Earth orbit (event #1) by a Saturn rocket at 7.500 m/s velocity and then the empty CM was orbiting Earth say 93-98 times to keep some NASA engineers happy, while the false Moon trip was broadcasted live on TV. The false CM then burnt up at re-entry. The real CM was simply dropped from an airplane at low altitude and never was in space or at location B at all ... .
Footage and sound from Moon of LM and asstronots stepping down into 120C hot Moon soil, planting flag and fooling around were just a Hollywood 911 style propaganda movie broadcasted to confuse people. It is very easy to fake photos and voices for similar events.
Go to Part 3 - The Shuttle and International Space Station hoaxes